Output and Publications
WORCK Publication Projects (in preparation)
WORCK is setting up a digital WORCK Publication Platform, including datasets such as maps, source documents etc., data stories, working papers, annotated bibliographies and blog articles.
Working Group 1 is preparing a Special Issue with the Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften/Austrian Journal of Historical Studies (OeZG) on “Historical Semantics for Labour and Social History. Conceptual and Empirical Insights from the Collaborative Database Project ‘Grammars of Coercion'”. Contact persons: Branimir Brgles (MC Member, Croatia)/Claude Chevaleyre (MC Member, France)/Juliane Schiel (Action Chair).
Call for research papers: Issue Proposal_OeZG_”Historical Semantics” (PDF; deadline: 1 October 2020)
Working Group 2 collects essays on specific sites of coercion and prepares a publication on sites and fields of coercion. Contact person: Christian De Vito (MC Member, Germany)
Working Group 3 is working on a proposal for a collected volume on “The Political Economy of Labour (Im)Mobilisations”, to be published with De Gruyter. Contact person: Vilhelm Vilhelmsson (MC Member, Iceland)
Working Group 4 is currently planning two publications:
a Special Issue on “Intersectional Approaches to Coerced Labour”, contact persons: Hanne Østhus (MC Member, Norway)/Natalia Jarska (MC Member, Poland), find Call for Papers here, and
a Special Issue on “Gender, Coercion and War Labour”, contact persons: Fia Sundevall (MC Member, Sweden)/ Christine De Matos (nominated as MC Observer, Australia), find Call for Papers here.
Vilhelm Vilhelmsson (MC Member, Iceland), Johan Heinsen (Vice Action Chair, MC Member, Denmark) and Hanne Østhus (MC Member, Norway) are editing a Special Issue at the Scandinavian Journal of History on “Labour and Coercion in the Nordic Region in the Early Modern Period. Connections, Ambiguities, Practices”, with contributions among others from Peeter Tammisto (MC Member, Estonia), Emilie Luther Valentin (WORCK Member, Denmark) and Carolina Uppenberg (MC Member, Sweden). The issue will be published in print in 2023, with online pre-publishing in 2022.
Damian Pargas (MC Member, Netherlands) and Juliane Schiel (Action Chair) are editing “The Palgrave Handbook of Global Slavery” with chapter contributions from several WORCK members. The publication is planned for 2022.
The Journal of Social History (vol. 54, issue 2/2020) published an article entitled “From Bondage to Precariousness? New Perspectives on Labor and Social History”, co-authored by Christian G. De Vito (MC Member, Germany), Juliane Schiel (Action Chair) and Matthias van Rossum (MC Member, Netherlands). The article pursues two goals. First, it reviews recent literature calling for a re-vised and extended history of work. Based on that review, it then explores the possibility of a new, empirically based analytical and methodological framework for the study of labour relations and the reinterpretation of contemporary issues, including precariousness, “modern slavery”, social inequality, and dependence.
We contend that viewing labor relations as standardly diverse, coexisting, entangled, and overlapping across history provides an alternative organizing prin- ciple for the research field and is central to the understanding of larger social processes. To this end, we propose a contextualized, interrelational and transepochal approach to labor relations and labor experiences and discuss the potential of three research strategies: the analysis of the historical semantics of labor relations, the detailed study of coercion, and the historical investigation of the relation between precariousness and flexibility.
The Journal of Global Slavery just released a special issue on “Modalities of Coercion and Shifting Labor and Power Relations”, guest-edited by Juliane Schiel (Action Chair) and Christian G. De Vito (MC Member, Germany). The issue (vol. 5, no. 2/2020) calls for a radical contextualisation of the history of the enslaved. It not only links their histories to those of other coerced laborers, but it also seeks to detect the modalities of coercion of the asymmetrical power relations that were at stake. By situating and comparing specific cases from different time periods and world regions, this special issue not only contributes to the study of slavery and current debates in global labor history—it may also help to conceptualize a new social history.
The volume contains first results from the COST network on “Worlds of Related Coercions in Work” (WORCK). It presents four case studies of specific social formations in which the status of the enslaved and the practice of enslavement underwent major modifications. The first article, by Juliane Schiel, examines late medieval Ragusa (today’s Dubrovnik), where unskilled migrant workers and captured people from the Slavic hinterlands were gradually absorbed by the increasing labor demand of the surrounding sea powers and the logics of a commodified maritime economy. The second article, by Claude Chevaleyre, is set in late imperial China, where more and more commoners started buying “adopted sons” and keeping them as slaves in order to bypass the rule of the Great Ming Code that had restricted the ownership of slaves to a small state elite. The third article, by Karsten Voss† and Klaus Weber, analyzes the period of the late 17th-century sugar revolutions, when the French Governor Jean-Baptiste du Casse aimed to make Saint-Domingue a lucrative colony, economically competitive with the neighboring British island of Jamaica. The final article, by Benedetta Rossi, takes us to the vast hinterlands of Niger, where slavery has remained a living institution up to today.
Publications by WORCK Members
Publications are sorted in alphabetical order, using the first author’s last name. Along with the bibliographical reference, you may find short summaries of the publication’s contents in English.
- Achim, Viorel (2017), The Gypsies in the Romanian Lands during the Middle Ages: Slavery, in: Pargas, Damian Alan/Roşu, Felicia (eds.), Critical Readings on Global Slavery. 4 vols., pp. 983-1043.
A syntesis on the history of slavery of Gypsies (Roma) in the Romanian countries in the 14th-18th centuries. The chapter reproduces the chapter with the same title in Viorel Achim, The Roma in Romanian History (2004), pp. 27-85.
- Achim, Viorel (2015), Munca forţată în Transnistria: “Organizarea muncii” evreilor şi romilor, decembrie 1942 – martie 1944 [The Forced Labour in Transnistria: The “Labour Organization” for Jews and Roma, December 1942-March 1944], 148 pp.
A large study on the forced labour performed by the Romanian Jews and Roma deported to Transnistria in the years 1941-1944. The study is focused on the “labour organization”, i.e. the way in which the forced labour was organizes and regulated. It details the legal and administrative measures taken by the Governorate of Transnistria and other deeds of the central administration of this territory, especially of the Labour Department.
- Achim, Viorel (2015), The Forced Labour of the Gypsies in Transnistria: The Regulation of December 1942 and the Reality on the Ground, in: Historical Yearbook XI-XII, pp. 209-224.
The article discusses the regulation of the status of Gypsies (Roma) deported to Transnistria made by the Decision no. 3149 of 18 December 1942 of the Government of Transnistria. This decision introduced a new labour regime for the deportees. The article explains the reasons behind this decision and the extent to which this decision, as well as several other acts adopted in this field in 1943, have been implemented.
- Ågren, Maria (2020, forthcoming), Service, help and delegation: what vaguely described work can tell us about labour relations in the past, in: Bischoff, Jeannine (ed.), Beyond Slavery and Freedom: Bonn Centre for Slavery and Dependence Studies Publications.
This article explores a dataset of verb-phrases culled from early modern Swedish sources, all of which describe work in vague terms. The analysis shows that vaguely described work (e.g. ‘to work’, ‘to serve’) often appeared together with information on for whom, where and under what conditions the work in question had taken place. In other words, work was neither described as a concrete task nor as an occupation; instead, it was the labour relation that people tended to describe.
- Akdemir, Ayşegül (unpublished work), “Put me on to a male agent”: Emotional labour and gender in call centres.
This research aims to fill the gap in the literature on emotional labour and gender’s intersections by treating gender as something we do (or undo) rather than fixed categories. Based on qualitative interviews with call centre workers the study aims to illuminate the intersections of gender, power and performance on the job.
- Narlı, Nilüfer/Akdemir, Ayşegül (2019), Female Emotional Labour in Turkish Call Centres: Smiling Voices Despite Low Job Satisfaction, in: Sociological Research Online 24/3, pp. 278-296.
This study examines emotional labour practices of Turkey’s growing call centre business in which mainly women are employed in precarious conditions. The findings reveal that providing emotional labour to customers is an important but undervalued aspect of work and that the external conditions of work life (especially unemployment threat) diminish the workers’ power to resist the work conditions.
- Narlı, Nilüfer/Akdemir, Ayşegül (2018), Job Satisfaction in Turkish Call Centres, in: Babacan, Hasan/Premovic, Marijan (eds.), Academic Studies in Social, Human and Administrative Sciences, pp. 101-123.
This study deals with the working conditions of women working in call centres. The statistical data is based on Turkey’s 6 large cities. The findings reveal that wages, working hours and night shifts are the biggest factors that lower workers’ job satisfaction. In addition the longer women work in the sector, the less satisfied they are with the work.
- Almagro Vidal, Clara (2019), “Our Moors”: Military Orders and Unfree Muslims in the Kingdom of Castile, in: Morton, Nicholas (ed.), The Military Orders, Vol. VII: Piety, Pugnacity and Property, pp. 139-148.
- Almagro Vidal, Clara (2018), Más Allá de la Aljama: Comunidades Musulmanas bajo el Dominio de la Orden de Calatrava en Castilla, in: En la España Medieval 41, pp. 9-22.
- Almagro Vidal, Clara (2017), Moros al Servicio de las Órdenes Militares en Castilla: Algunas Reflexiones, in: Actas del XIII Simposio Internacional de Mudejarismo Celebrado en Teruel, 4-5 septiembre de 2014 , pp. 191-200.
- Angelova, Milena (2019), Тhe Transfer of Modern Agricultural Knowledge among the Bulgarians in the Danube Province (1860s–1870s), in: Michailidis, Iakovos D./Giorgos Antoniou (eds.), Institution Building and Research under Foreign Domination Europe and the Black Sea Region (early 19th–early 20th centuries), pp. 93-106.
This article discusses some problems related to the introduction of “agricultural enlightenment” among Bulgarians in the second half of the 19th century. This paper is structured in several accents. It firstly demonstrates the relationship between “the enlightened peasant” and the agricultural education in Western Europe during the 18th-19th centuries. This research mainly focuses on the first generation of Bulgarians who received agricultural education abroad. These graduates, the first generation of Bulgarian agronomists who graduated from European schools and universities, were regarded as “agents” for the transfer of agricultural knowledge, which acquainted Bulgarians with the “modern” West.
- Angelova, Milena (2014), “The Model Village”. The modernization Project of the Villages in Bulgaria (1937-1944), in: MARTOR (The Museum of the Romanian Peasant Anthropology Review) 19, pp. 89-96.
This article presents the interaction between the national and international levels of rural modernization as they are shaped by the disciplines of agronomy, sociology, rural planning, public health and more. The article examines the role of the agrarian sociology in producing visions of rural transformation in interwar Bulgaria, focusing on the Agricultural Economics Research Institute and the surveys of rural house work. Тhe article also engages with the concept of the “model” itself, asking how and why models of rural living were used to produce or manage social change. The agrarian policies found paths of further development in the professionalization of both agrarian economy and social intervention into rural life.
- нгелова, Милена (2013), Безсмъртният герой като колега: колективният ритуал “Героят е винаги в строя” (1977-1989) – В: Колева, Д. (съст.), Смъртта през социализма – героика и постгероика, с. 115-128. [The Immortal Hero as a Co-worker: The Collective ritual “The Hero is Always in Our Lines”, 1977-1989, in: Koleva, Daniela (ed.), Death under Socialism: Heroics and Postheroics, pp. 115-128].
The campaign “The Hero is Always in Our Lines” was designed as a state initiative in Bulgaria in the 1970s as a part of the ideological scenarios of late communist rule. The Bulgarian version of the campaign was a response to the similar Soviet initiative “For you and for that boy”. The basic idea was that work brigades (units) had to choose died communist heroes as their “patrons” in order to sustain their memory. The heroes were enlisted in the payroll and the work brigades fulfilled additional work assignments on their behalf and received their wages.
- Bänziger, Peter-Paul (2020), Die Moderne als Erlebnis. Eine Geschichte der Konsum- und Arbeitsgesellschaft, ca. 1840-1940.
In the decades around 1900, the German-speaking societies underwent profound changes affecting both work and consumption. Based on more than one hundred diaries, the book examines how people perceived their everyday life. In their eyes, life should above all be fun and provide diversions – in leisure time as well as at work. The bourgeois value of a general industriousness however, by which so many diaries of the 19th century were characterized, played only a subordinate role.
- Bänziger, Peter-Paul (forthcoming), The Co-Production of Labor Markets and Nation States, c. 1850-2000, in: Mense, Ursula/Welskopp, Thomas/Zaharieva, Anna (eds.), In Search of the Global Labor Market.
The article argues that labor markets emerged in close relation to a far-reaching societal transformation at the turn of the twentieth century: the largely intertwined consolidations of the nation state and of a new mode of conceptualizing and institutionalizing labor as “work”. Against this background it further argues that labor markets were at most partially denationalized in the course of the past few decades.
- Bänziger, Peter-Paul/Suter, Mischa (eds.) (2017), Histories of Productivity. Genealogical Perspectives on the Body and Modern Economy.
Throughout modernity, the body served as a fundamental, albeit essentially changing, linchpin for both the organization of economic practices and for intellectual reflections on the economy. In particular, it was the pivotal interface to render notions of economic productivity intelligible. The book explores this in case studies drawing on source material from West Africa, Europe, Mexico, and the US.
- de Barros, Maria Filomena Lopes (2020), Cumprir Marrocos em Portugal: a comunidade mourisca de Setúbal no século XVI [Fulfilling Morocco in Portugal: the Moorish community of Setúbal in the 16th century].
This article explores, in part, the coercive work of Moorish slaves in Setúnal (Portugal) in the 16th century and how that work is reproduced after freedom.
- Bartha, Eszter (2019), “This Workers’ Hostel Lost Almost Every Bit of Added Value It Had”: Workers’ Hostels, Social Rights and Legitimization in Hungary and the German Democratic Republic, in: Siefert, Marsha (ed.), Labor in State-Socialist Europe after 1945: Contributions to a History of Work, pp. 167-194.
Workers’ hostels have been a relatively understudied area of the social history of the 1970s. In this chapter – apart from presenting two case studies, one in the GDR and the other one in Hungary – I argue that the contemporary literature produced in connection with the social rights (or rather, the lack of social rights, as many workers, who had to spend years in these “temporary” accommodation, experienced) can offer an insight into the decline of trust in the so-called “welfare dictatorships” and the crisis of their legitimacy. I call these regimes welfare dictatorships because they were based on the recognition that the dictatorship of the proletariat could not change either human needs or the ways of satisfying these needs. Thus, the decline of state socialism – from the perspective of labor – started well before the actual collapse of these regimes when even low-level functionaries formulated – at least in Hungary – a strong criticism of a socialism, which could not afford to provide workers with minimal levels of housing comfort (Housing was provided, but comfort was not). I argue that this slow erosion of legitimacy went hand in hand with the economic weakening of the state socialist regimes.
- Bartha, Eszter (2017), Transforming Labour: From the Workers’ State to the Post-Socialist Re-Organization of Industry and Workplace Communities: Carl Zeiss Jena (East Germany) and Rába in Győr (Hungary), in: Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte 58/2, pp. 413-438.
The article shows that working-class resentment at the inequalities of neoliberal capitalism can be easily channeled into a right-wing, nationalistic discourse – especially in the absence of any other credible narrative. In Germany, the political left has a much more powerful public presence and media coverage than in Hungary; indeed, the terms that East German workers used for the description of the new, capitalist society might have been borrowed from the media. In Hungary, workers experienced a dramatic decline in the symbolic capital of the “working class” alongside the drop in material rewards, which was all the more painful in comparison to the income of the members of the new elite. They also complained about the loss of the old social networks and a sense of social isolation. All these factors provide a “hotbed” for the rise of (new) ethnic communities so long as there are no alternative means for the “re-conquest” of workers’ symbolic capital.
- Bartha, Eszter (2013), Alienating Labour: Workers on the Road from Socialism to Capitalism in East Germany and Hungary.
The state socialist regimes in Hungary and East Germany sought to win over the “masses” with promises of providing for ever-increasing levels of consumption. This policy—successful at the outset—in the long-term proved to be detrimental for the regimes because it shifted working class political consciousness to the right while it effectively excluded leftist alternatives from the public sphere. This book argues that this policy can provide the key to understanding of the collapse of the regimes. It examines the case studies of two large factories, Carl Zeiss Jena (East Germany) and Rába in Győr (Hungary), and demonstrates how the study of the formation of the relationship between the workers’ state and the industrial working class can offer illuminating insights into the important issue of the legitimacy (and its eventual loss) of Communist regimes.
- Batista, Anamarija (forthcoming), Referenzierung der jugoslawischen Architektur in zeitgenössischen Praxen und ihre Bedeutung für die Verhandlung des Phänomens Luxus, in: Viderman, Tihomir et al. (eds.), Unsettled – Urban routines, temporalities and contestations.
This text scrutinizes the concept of luxury in the context of self-governing socialism as the subject matter of particular importance in challenging and unsettling contemporary thought, thus making it transgressive.
- Batista, Anamarija/Kovács, Szilvia/Lesky, Carina (eds.) (2017), Rethinking Density: Art, Culture, and Urban Practices.
“Rethinking Density: Art, Culture, and Urban Practices” considers new perspectives and discussions related to the category of density, which for a long time has been part of urban-planning discourses and is now regaining the attention of artists and practitioners from a number of different disciplines. In an interplay of models, coping strategies, and experimental approaches, this publication combines research from cultural studies, artistic research, sound studies as well as architectural and urban theory.
- Batista, Anamarija (ed.) (2016), Crisis as Ideology (Exhibition Catalogue).
In this exhibition we investigate and (de)construct the character of the crisis. It is an attempt to probe the ambiguous status quo. The artistic works address notions of social manipulation, discontinuity, and value creation along with historical and contemporary precedents, with the aim to transfer the crisis and its demons into concrete and tangible states of thought, to outfox them and transform them into spatial constructs.
- Bernet, Brigitta/Schiel, Juliane/Tanner, Jakob (eds.) (2016), Arbeit in der Erweiterung.
- Bonazza, Giulia/Ongaro, Giulio (2018), Libertà e Coercizione: Il Lavoro in una Prospettiva di Lungo Periodo.
- Brgles, Branimir (2019), Ljudi, prostor i mijene. Susedgradsko i donjostubičko vlastelinstvo 1450.–1700. Prilog istraživanju ranonovovjekovnih ruralnih društava [People, space and time. Susedgrad and Donja Stubica manorial estate 1450-1700. Contribution to the research of early modern rural societies].
- Brgles, Branimir (2018), Tko se buni pod Susedgradom i Stubicom? Prilog proučavanju društvenih nemira 1565.–1573. [Who is rebelling at Susedgrad and Stubica? Contribution to the research of the 1565–1573 peasant revolts], in: Povijesni prilozi 55, pp. 139-204.
- Brgles, Branimir (2018), Second Serfdom in Croatia and Slavonia 1500-1700. WEAST. The Eastern European Economic History Initiative. The Origins and Legacies of the Little Divergence in Central and Eastern Europe. Weast Worskhop. Vienna.
- Byrne, Sian/Ulrich, Nicole/van der Walt, Lucien (2017), Red, Black and Gold: FOSATU, South African “Workerism, Syndicalism and the Nation, in: Webster, Edward/Pampillas, Karin (eds.), The Unresolved National Question in South Africa, pp. 254-273.
- Caracausi, Andrea (2019), Fashion, Capitalism and Ribbon-Making in Early Modern Europe, in: Safley, Thomas Max (ed.), Labor Before the Industrial Revolution: Work, Technology and Their Ecologies in an Age of Early Capitalism, pp. 48-69.
This book-chapter shows the nexus between consumer-surplus and worker-surplus in the early-modern garment industry, the growing exploitation of female and child labour in low-skilled and export-oriented manufacturing and how labour and labour regimes were strongly embedded in social structures and power relations within respective communities.
- Caracausi, Andrea (2018), Woollen Manufacturing in the Early Modern Mediterranean (1550–1630): Changing Labour Relations in a Commodity Chain, in: De Vito, Christian G./ Gerritsen, Anne (eds.), Micro-Spatial Histories of Global Labour, pp. 147-169.
This book chapter is a first attempt to combine a micro-historical analysis centred on a consumer product manufacture (woollen cloth) with the heuristic tool of the commodity chain approach. It shows how categories as space and labour relations, as well as time-framing and historical periodization, can be identified better as a result of the singularity of the place under investigation.
- Caracausi, Andrea (2017), A Reassessment of the Role of Guild Courts in Disputes over Apprenticeship Contracts: A Case Study from Early Modern Italy, in: Continuity and Change 32/1, pp. 85-114.
This article analyses the mechanisms of conflict resolution in apprenticeship contracts using a large database of disputes from early modern Italy. It investigates topics like recruitment, enforcement, violence, coercion, exit, and power relations within manufactures.
- Casu, Igor (2015), The Fate of Stalinist Victims in Soviet Moldavia After 1953: Amnesty, Pardon and the Long Road to Rehabilitation, in: McDermott, Kevin/Stibbe, Matthew (eds.), De-Stalinising Eastern Europe: The Rehabilitation of Stalin’s Victims After 1953, pp. 186-203.
The study refers to a long-neglected aspect of the post-Stalinist period in Soviet Moldavia, namely the fate of the people repressed before 1953 by being sent to Siberia and Kazakhstan with their whole families, including aged and ill members. Based on a large set of documents, including the former KGB in Chișinău, the study shows the limits of rehabilitation after 1953 up to the late 1970s- early 1980s and the perpetuation of discrimination to a certain extent to large social strata targeted indiscriminately by the Stalinist terror.
- Casu, Igor (ed.) (2014), At the Origins of Sovietization of Bessarabia: Identification of Class Enemies, Confiscations of Property and Work Mobilization in Moldavian SSR, 1940-1941. 458 pp. (in Russian, with summary and names of the documents in English and Romanian).
The volume contains documents from former party and state archives of Soviet Moldavia, in Chișinău. It covers three main topics that overall anticipates the beginning of mass repression in Moldavian SSR as well as in other new Soviet Western borderlands in May-June 1941 just days before the German-Soviet war. Thus, it focuses on issues such as the way the Soviet political police and other agencies identified the class enemies, interrogated them about their properties, their political affiliations and other issues. The third main topic covered in the volume pertains to mass forced work mobilization in Ukraine, Russia and other Soviet republics.
- Cașu, Igor (2012), Political Repressions in Moldavian SSR after 1956: Towards a Typology Based on KGB files, in: Dystopia. Journal of Totalitarian Ideologies and Regimes 1-2, p. 89-127.
The article is the first attempt to reconstitute the scale, nature and methods opposition to the Soviet regime in Moldavian SSR after Stalin’s death. The author stresses the fact that even though there is no mass repression after 1953, the regime retained its main characteristics such as one-party rule, censorship, prohibition of market relations and private property and the leading role of civil and political police in controlling all forms of social and individual life.
- Centrih, Lev (2014), The Road to Collapse: The Demise of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia.
The publication is indirectly connected to the COST Action’s topic. Author explores dynamics of the systemic changes in socialist Yugoslavia 1945–1991. Findings are relevant for the author’s present interest in atypical forms of labour. League of Communists of Yugoslavia was the leading political force in the country: after the second world war the Party initiated reconstruction campaigns which included phenomenon of “working brigades” . These labour arrangements were neither completely free but not completely compulsory either.
- Ćeranić, Goran (2017), Montenegrin entrepreneurs’ material position and their self-assessment of business success, in: Социологические исследования. Руска академија наук 4, pp. 116-121.
No matter what the trends are, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs emerge as a response to the current historical developmental requirements. As an old, but still current business philosophy, entrepreneurship gets “activated” both in the developed market economies as well as in the transitioning ones. In Montenegro, this issue has been particularly important. For a number of years a specific entrepreneurial activity went on caused by our country’s delicate position, which further influenced the slow development of entrepreneurial sector in comparison to other Eastern European countries. In addition to analyzing the material position of entrepreneurial group in the socialist era, we have tried to determine to what extent this group has changed in the post-socialist period. It is obvious that this era has seen a rise in the economic power of entrepreneurs and their material standards, therefore, these issues will be the main subject of this work.
- Ćeranić, Goran (2010), Social exclusiveness and the character of competitiveness of the montenegrin social system, in: Sociološka luča IV/2, pp. 21-37.
Social exclusiveness, as one of the main problems of modern society, entails a lack of social connections and power, disintegration, marginalization, social detachment and unfavorable position in the political, economic and social sense. Social exclusiveness concept can be operationalized by means of three elements: unemployment (marginalization at labor market), poverty and social isolation. Different integral elements of social exclusiveness are mutually interdependent, creating a spiral of insecurity which results in constant and multiply depriving circumstances. In those circumstances, the competitiveness of those individuals is not developed, nor are their abilities utilized, what to a great extent influences the competitiveness of the system itself.
- Ćeranić, Goran (2007), Sociological analysis of property transformation in Montenegro (1989–2000), in: Sociološka luča I/1, pp. 110-119.
Property transformation represents a complex social venture, global by the dimensions, strategic by the meaning, deep by the economic political and cultural consequences. Therefore, it is not a separated and autonomous process whose change causes consequences only in the property area; on the contrary, it is a process which encompasses the area and each subsystem of that area.Taking into account all this, while analysing property transformation in the post-socialist Montenegro, the attention must be paid to the following processes: social processes of establishing property as an institutionalised production category, the institutionalising of the social order and the influence of the individual and authority on it, property influence upon the value orientation of the citizen of Montenegro and to identification of whether all this leads to the constitution of the New Society.
- De Vito, Christian/Schiel, Juliane/van Rossum, Matthias (2020), From Bondage to Precariousness: New Perspectives on Labor and Social History, in: Journal of Social History 54/2, pp. 1-19.
This article explores the possibility of a new, empirically based analytical and methodological framework for the study of labour relations and the reinterpretation of contemporary issues, including precariousness, „modern slavery,” social inequality, and dependence.It proposes a contextualized, interrelational and transepochal approach and discusses the potential of three research strategies.
- Dobrincu, Dorin/Aioanei, Alexandru-Dumitru/Lisnic, Dumitru/Lăcătușu, Dumitru (2017), Colectivizarea agriculturii din România: inginerie socială, violență politică, reacția țărănimii: Documente.
- Egry, Gábor/Barna, Ábrahám (eds.) (2019), Összeomlás uralomváltás, nemzetállam-építés, 1918-1925 [Collapse, change of government, nation-state building].
The collection of documents sheds light on the process of transition from Hungary to Romania at the end of the WWI with a local focus. The documents cover the most pressing social issues of this period and attempt to reveal the concerns of ordinary people.
- Egry, Gábor (2017), Unholy Alliances? Language Exams, Loyalty, and Identification in Interwar Romania, in: Slavic Review 76/4, pp. 959-982.
This article analyzes national loyalty and identification by examining the language exams administered to minority public officials in Romania in 1934 and 1935. The exams aimed at testing officials’ knowledge of the state language, but given the broader political context they were more than a survey of linguistic skills, and the political goal was to reduce their number. Examinees were singled out as non-Romanian and subjected to an additional requirement not demanded from their ethnic Romanian colleagues, interpreting the use of the official language as a sign of loyalty. Drawing upon theories of loyalty as a historical concept, the paper analyzes how the particular situation of minority public officials was reflected in these texts and how they created a specific identification for themselves, composed of important elements of their minority ethnicity but also expressing their identification with the state and its modernizing goals as members of a unified, professional public body. The language exams signaled the emergence of a specific category of minority public servants who were part of both the minority group and the middle-class functionaries of the Romanian state. Nationalist public discourse on both sides – Romanian and minority – have denied and erased the history of these hybrid loyalties and identities, but the languages exams help us to recover them.
- Filčák, Richard/Szilvasi, Marek/Škobla, Daniel (2018), No Water for the Poor: The Roma Ethnic Minority and Local Governance, in: Ethnic and Racial Studies 41/7, pp. 1390-1407.
- Fudge, Judy (2019), (Re)Conceptualizing Unfree Labour: Local Labour Control Regimes and Constraints on Workers‘ Freedoms‘, in: Global Labour Journal 10/2, pp. 108-122.
- Fudge, Judy (2018), Modern Slavery, Unfree Labour and the Labour Market: The Social Dynamics of Legal Characterization, in: Social and Legal Studies 27/4, pp. 413-434.
- García Funes, Juan Carlos (2018), Batallones de trabajo forzado del sistema concentracionario franquista: organización, desarrollo y cuantificación de mano de obra cautiva [Forced Labour Battalions of the Francoist Concentrational System: Organization, Development and Quantification of Captive Labour], in: Gómez Bravo, G./Martín Nájera, A. (eds.), A vida o muerte. Persecución a los republicanos españoles.
This chapter summarizes the organization and development of the forced labour battalions of Franco’s concentrationist system, providing the results of the quantification resulting from the first investigation of the volume of this captive labor force in all of Spain.
- García Funes, Juan Carlos (2017), Espacios de castigo y trabajo forzado del sistema concentracionario franquista [Spaces of punishment and forced labour of the Francoist concentration system]. PHD thesis, Universidad Pública de Navarra.
During the Spanish Civil War and the first years of Franco’s regime, the Army coordinated and ruled a system of concentration camps for prisoners of war. The military coup perpetrators coordinates diverse types of forced labour for prisioners from these camps in Worker’s Battalions and resulted fundamental to understand the fact that political enemies were being used as unfree labour. After the war, the military bureaucracy transformed their bodies and mechanisms. This study analyses the use of forcibly recruited labour force during the war and post-war period across Spain, with a study detailed of the works developed, the keys to the war and post-war need for labour in captivity through its location and quantification.
- Gluchman, Vasil (2020), Slovak Marxist-Leninist Philosophy on Work: Experience of the Second Half of the 20th Century, in: Studies in East European Thought 72/1, pp. 43-58.
The paper analyses the concept of work in Slovak Marxist-Leninist philosophy and ethics in the second half of the twentieth century by referencing, in particular, Furnham’s critical assessment of the relationship between left-wing ideology and the values of work ethic. The author comes to the conclusion that, on the one hand, Marxist-Leninist ideology and the practice of building socialism made the notion and phenomenon of work into an ideological fetish; on the other hand, however, the real value of work and its contribution to the development of society was depreciated. Instead of bringing about the liberation of work all that it engendered was a new form of its alienation.
- Gluchman, Vasil (2018), Theories of Professional Ethics, in: Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 12, pp. 137-141.
Professional ethics including work ethics is most frequently associated with deontological ethics; however, lately it has been developed in the context of virtue ethics. A great number of authors have criticised the possible alignment of professional ethics with consequentialist ethics. Author defines the structure of professional ethics also as work ethics that would correspond to the needs of forming a professional ethical framework as well as the value tendencies of consequentialist ethics in its non-utilitarian form. There is an emphasis on the values of humanity, human dignity and moral right of man, also taking into regard values of justice, liability, tolerance and responsibility (all that in an effort to achieve a prevalence of positive over negative consequences).
- Gluchman, Vasil (2014), Professional Ethics as Work Ethics and Ethics of Relations.
Within this book, the author critically examines the term profession and, unlike many ‘aristocratic’ or elitist definitions of the profession, comes to a more democratic understanding of the profession, which, in his view, corresponds to the current dynamic approach to the profession as a qualified and quality work. Consequently, the author pays attention to researching the nature of the work and its importance at present. In this context, it also deals with labour values, access to labour, which are of importance and role in developed Western countries. Many authors, starting with Max Weber in his work “Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism” (1905), but also for example Adrian Furnham in his book “Protestant Work Ethic” (1990), Richard Sennett in “The Corrosion of Character” (1998) point to a contradictory understanding of values related to the job at present.
- Greenfield-Liebst, Michelle (forthcoming 2021), Labour and Christianity in the Missions: African Workers in Tanganyika and Zanzibar, 1864-1926.
The findings expose how missionaries, as some of earliest examples of Europeans who tried to control African labour, supported and undermined certain livelihood trajectories. Despite the abolition of slavery in 1897 in Zanzibar and the fact that the UMCA was closely linked with the anti-slavery movement, ex-slaves continued to struggle with their social status.
- Greenfield-Liebst, Michelle (2017), Sin, Slave Status and the City in Zanzibar, 1864-c.1930, in: African Studies Review 60, pp. 139-160.
Missionaries believed that being an ex-slave or descendant of ex-slave went hand with urbanity and moral contagion. As far as the ex-slaves were concerned, the growing commercial centre of Zanzibar, and the coastal cultures it was associated with, were not only enticing, but crucial to social and economic mobility. Thus, though livelihoods could be found at the mission, young and able workers looked to the town to increase their chances of survival.
- Greenfield-Liebst, Michelle (2014), African Workers and the Universities‘ Mission to Central Africa in Zanzibar, 1864–1900, in: Journal of Eastern African Studies 8/3, pp. 366-381.
This article explores the connections between African workers and Christian missions in late nineteenth-century Zanzibar. The main finding is that missionaries found themselves hiring slaves in order to build their cathedral, which is ironically a symbol of abolition.
- Grubački, Isidora (forthcoming), Women Activists’ Relation to Peasant Women’s Work in the 1930s Yugoslavia, in: Betti, Eloisa/Neunsinger, Silke/Papastefanaki, Leda/Tolomelli, Marica/Zimmermann, Susan (eds.), Women, Work and Agency. Organizing and activism around the world in the long 20th century.
The chapter explores the relationship between women’s activism and peasant women in interwar Yugoslavia, arguing that peasant women’s work was the main focus of feminist activists who proposed different changes in peasant women’s lives. By exploring the asymmetrical relationship between educated activist women and mostly uneducated peasant women, the chapter further addresses the question of the character of feminist activism in a predominantly agrarian country in Southeastern Europe.
- Guzowski, Piotr (2014), The Role of Enforced Labour in the Economic Development of Church and Royal Estates in 15th and 16th-century Poland, in: S. Cavaciocchi (ed.), Serfdom and Slavery in the European Economy 11th-18th centuries, pp. 216-234.
The aim of this paper is to explore the phenomenon of unfree labour, its origins and spreading, as an important element of Polish manorial economy, both at the end of the Middle Ages and at the beginning of the early modern period, that is prior to and after large scale exportation of Polish grain via Baltic ports began.
- Guzowski, Piotr (2013), The Peasant Land Market in Late Medieval and Early Modern Poland, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, in: Gerard Béaur et al. (eds.), Property Rights, Land Markets and Economic Growth in the European Countryside (13th–20th Centuries), pp. 219–237.
The aim of this paper is to answer the question whether there was peasant land market in Poland in the late Middle Ages and at the beginning of the early modern period, how well developed it was, and what was its role in the peasant economy. The paper looks for evidence in the oldest Polish village court rolls.
- Guzowski, Piotr (2011), The influence of exports on grain production on Polish royal demesne farms in the second half of the sixteenth century, in: Agricultural History Review 59, pp. 312-327.
The paper explores a survey of royal lands produced in 1564 and 1565. This contains data from over 500 royal demesnes situated throughout the Kingdom of Poland, and provides detailed information about types of cereals grown, their yields and prices, animal husbandry, the system of land division, weights and measures, and the system of agricultural management.
- Hackett, Sarah (2020), Britain’s Rural Muslims: Rethinking Integration.
This study draws upon archival documentation and oral history interviews, and explores the integration of Muslim migrant communities in an English rural county across the post-1960s period. It focuses on a range of topics, including local government policy and migrants’ experiences in the labour and housing markets, education, and religious practice and recognition.
- Hackett, Sarah (2014), From rags to restaurants: self-determination, entrepreneurship and integration amongst Muslim immigrants in Newcastle upon Tyne in comparative perspective, 1960s-1990s, in: Twentieth Century British History 25/1, pp. 132-154.
This article traces the development of entrepreneurship amongst Newcastle’s post-war Muslim immigrant community. A comparison with the German city of Bremen helps expose the long-term legacies of immigration histories and policies, and the role that Islam plays in determining levels of ethnic entrepreneurship. By drawing upon government documents and correspondence, Census material and a range of secondary literature, this article asserts that the scholarship on immigrant aspirations and self-determination in the British labour market during the post-Second World War period needs revising.
- Hackett, Sarah (2013), Foreigners, Minorities and Integration: The Muslim Immigrant Experience in Britain and Germany.
This book explores the arrival and development of Muslim immigrant communities in Britain and Germany during the post-1945 period through the case studies of Newcastle upon Tyne and Bremen. It traces Newcastle’s South Asian Muslims and Bremen’s Turkish Muslims from their initial settlement through to the end of the twentieth century, and investigates their behaviour and performance in the areas of employment, housing and education. In what is the first historical comparison of Muslim ethnic minorities in Britain and Germany at a local level, this book reveals that instances of integration have been frequent.
- Harnoncourt, Julia (2018), Unfreie Arbeit: Trabalho escravo in der brasilianischen Landwirtschaft [Unfree labour. Trabalho escravo in the agricultural sector in Brazil].
This book on unfree labour/trabalho escravo in the agricultural sector in Pará/Brazil, is based on an extensive interview study. Therein the specific labour relations are considered an outcome of local as well as global structures. Apart from the coercion inside the labour relation itself, local hierarchies, Brazil’s long history of slavery and other forms of unfree labour, the role of the state, racism and gender relations, as well as the incorporation of the Amazon basin and Brazil into the global economy all take part in (re)constructing the specific form of trabalho escravo in Para’s agriculture.
- Harnoncourt, Julia (2018), Trabalho Escravo im Amazonasgebiet: Peripherisierung, unfreie Arbeit und Weltmarkt, in: Zeitschrift für Weltgeschichte 19/2, pp. 315-336.
This article traces trabalho escravo (an unfree labour relation defined by Brazilian law) following a concrete example, Vale, one of the world leaders in mining, that owns the world’s biggest mine in Carajás in the state of Pará. Historical developments, the peripheral integration of Pará into the world market, as well as production chains are of importance here.
- Harnoncourt, Julia (2015), Labour-relations and the Periphery: The example of trabalho escravo in Pará (Brazil), in: Global Humanities: Studies in Histories, Cultures, and Societies 1/1, pp. 105-114.
This article puts trabalho escravo (unfree labour), defined by Brazilian law since 1995, into the scheme of peripheral labour relations, and tries to find out how much they coincide, and weather this kind of forced labour is to be seen as a typical or an atypical form of labour in the peripheral regions under capitalism, and how Brazil and Pará fit into the centre-periphery model.
- Heinsen, Johan (2019), Escaping St. Thomas: Class Relations and Convict Strategies in the Danish West Indies, 1672-1687, in: Rediker, Marcus/Chakraborty, Titas/van Rossum, Matthias (eds.), A Global History of Runaways: Workers, Mobility, and Capitalism, pp. 40-57.
An examination of the ways in which convicts in the Danish colony of St. Thomas challenged colonial order and exploitation through practices of escape. Through a close study of a particular group of convict runaways, the article unearths the minutiae of antagonisms in a system of coerced displacement and punishment.
- Heinsen, Johan (2018), The Scandinavian Empires in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, in: Anderson, Clare (ed.), A Global History of Convicts and Penal Colonies, pp. 97-122.
This article provides an overview of the uses of convicts as labourers in the Scandinavian overseas empires of the early modern period.
- Heinsen, Johan (2017), Mutiny in the Danish Atlantic World: Convicts, Sailors and a Dissonant Empire.
A study of the conflict and resistance across the early modern Danish Atlantic world, explored through the lens of a singular event: The mutiny on the ship Havmanden which in early 1683 was taken over by a coalition of convicts and sailors in an act that was one part escape and one part piracy. The book pays special attention to the acts of storytelling and traditions of resistance that preceded and influenced the mutiny and its social world.
- Ivanović, Miloš (2017), “Dobri ljudi” u srpskoj srednjovekovnoj državi [“Boni Homines” in Medieval Serbian State], 175 pp.
The analysis of sources leads to the conclusion that persons giving statements about disputable land boundaries belonged to different social strata – from dependent peasants to the nobility. Knowing local circumstances was the primary characteristic that they needed to have. If there were priests among elders, they were mentioned in the first place, which means that they enjoyed special reputation as witnesses. The participation of noblemen was, however, important for the implementation of decisions. In a document from 1454, elders called themselves kmets, but this term also had several meanings. It is certain only that they were reputable inhabitants of settlements that they originated from. On the other hand, witnesses in disputes about lands in the territory ruled by the Crnojevićs were consistently designated as noblemen. The reason behind this is the social structure of this area with dominant military bands, whose members were considered the nobility. There was not much arable land there, which is why there was scarce dependent population. The analysis of the social status of “boni homines” in medieval Serbian towns must start from data from the Novo Brdo Legal Code. Its introduction contains the names of 24 expertpersons who compiled it. Two of them may perhaps be identified with persons mentioned in Dubrovnik documents, while others are not mentioned in other sources. However, professions are given next to some persons, indicating that they performed some mining activities. It cannot be excluded that this applied also to some other persons whose professions were not described. As the matter of fact, mining experts enjoyed autonomy also within towns where they worked and gathered at assemblies. However, neither this information enables us to place them into some of known social strata. It is also undisputable that “boni homines” who brought verdicts in disputes on coal pits had to have some expertise. Traders could also have been among them as they were the main investors in mining production.
- Ivanović, Miloš (2017), Razvoj institucije imuniteta u srpskoj srednjovekovnoj državi do kraja vladavine kralja Milutina [Development of the Institution of Immunity in the Serbian Medieval State Until the End of Reign of King Milutin], in: Istorijski časopis LXVI, pp. 49-83.
Groundbreaking period in the development of immunity was reign of King Milutin (1282–1321). In his charters he freed monastery’s possessions from “all kinds of labor, small and great”. In that manner, he gave to these properties complete tax exemption. Also, he forbade to his official and noblemen to threaten financial and judicial immunity of monasteries. It seems that the king still kept the right to judge in certain cases such as murder, infidelity, rape of girls and takeover men and horses. At that time the Byzantine holders also received broad immunity rights.
- Ivanović, Miloš (2014), Razvitak vojne službe kao osnov formiranja vlasteoskog sloja u srpskoj srednjovekovnoj državi [Development of Military Service as Foundation for Creation of Nobility in Medieval Serbia], in: Vojnoistorijski glasnik [Military Historical Review] 1, pp. 30-48.
Occasional submission of Serbian lands to Byzantine Empire or Bulgaria slow down creation of local elites. Process of political emancipation from Byzantine rule, which started in Doclea during 11th and its successful continuation in Raska during 12th century wouldn’t be feasible without existence of group of professional soldiers”. Confirmation could be found in writings of Byzantine writers as well in certain archeological sites. By the end of 12th century in Serbia appeared new type o soldier – armored cavalryman. Almost simultaneously appeared group of dependent inhabitants tied to land which was supposed to secure nobility with sufficient revenues. By the beginning of 13th century in hagiographies and charts beside nobility as separate social category appeared soldiers. Analyses of sources showed that both belonged to the class of warriors while nobility was entitled to higher titles and governing positions. In time, soldiers stop being separate social category and enter the ranks of nobility whose main obligation was warfare. By the mid-14th century this was confirmed by the Emperor Dusan Code. Thanks to its privileges nobility clearly differed from Vlachs among whom some were obliged to participate in war.
- Jarska, Natalia (2019), Unemployment in State Socialism: An Insight into the Understanding of Work in 1950s Poland, in: Siefert, Marsha (eds.), Labor in State Socialist Europe after 1945: Contributions to to a History of Work, pp. 27-47.
The chapter explores how “joblessness” was described, defined and perceived by workers, economists and policy-makers, and what measures and policies were taken against it by the party-state. This analysis offers an insight into the understanding of work in state socialism and the so-called “socialist economy”. My research shows that labour relations were defined by the principles of the Marxist economy implemented by the state institutions, but they were not static, being related to – among other factors – labour shortages, gender norms, memory of prewar (capitalist) relations, and the party-state’s search for legitimization.
- Jarska, Natalia (2019), Female Breadwinners in State Socialism: The Value of Women’s Work for Wages in Post-Stalinist Poland, in: Contemporary European History 4, pp. 469-483.
This article examines popular opinion about women’s wage work in the late 1950s and early 1960s in Poland, using letters to institutions and sociological research from this period. It introduces the notion of female breadwinning as a useful category to describe the understanding of women’s wage work under state socialism. Opinions on women’s wage work varied, but all of them were based on gender assumptions. Women’s and men’s work were valued differently. Men’s work had an indisputable, independent position. Women’s work was evaluated in the context of family.
- Jarska, Natalia (2018), The Periphery Revisited: Polish Post-war Historiography on the Working Class and the New Global Labour History, in: European Review of History 25/1, pp. 45-60.
After 1945, Polish historiography was circumscribed by political and ideological considerations; however – except during the brief Stalinist period (1951–56) – Marxist methodology was not imposed or applied uncritically. In fact, discussions about the role of the working class in history that began after 1956 generated research interest in new groups of workers and labour relations. Much of this research concerns recently highlighted aspects of labour history, such as marginal groups of workers or free versus unfree labour.
- Kaarsholm, Preben (forthcoming), From Abolition of the Slave Trade to Protection of Immigrants: Danish Colonialism, German Missionaries, and the Development of Ideas of Humanitarian Governance from the Early Eighteenth to the Nineteenth Century, in: Atlantic Studies 20.
The focus of the article is the emergence in the eighteenth century of discourses of abolition in the context of bonded labour and the trade in slaves from India. It relates this to the development in forms of unfree labour from slavery to indenture, and to the travels of abolitionism from the Indian Ocean world into that of the Atlantic. The article examines multinational dimensions of this early history of abolition and discusses more particularly how missionary enterprises based in Danish colonies in India contributed to the development of ideas of education, enlightenment, and natural rights that fed into emerging discourses of abolitionism. Further, the article links eighteenth-century debates around abolition to discourses of protection and humanitarianism that became prominent in the last half of the nineteenth century in the context of imperialist competition and campaigns against the illegal slave trade.
- Kaarsholm, Preben/Frederiksen, Bodil Folke (2019), Amaoti and Pumwani: Studying Urban Informality in South Africa and Kenya, in: African Studies 79/1, pp. 51-73.
Based on the authors’ parallel projects of research and fieldwork inurban informal settlements in Durban and Nairobi, the article usescomparison to bring out similarities and differences in thedynamics of informality in a South African and Kenyan setting. Thearticle examines three dimensions of informality – the informaleconomy, informal housing and informal politics – as they play intothe lives of youth, popular culture, moral debate, and local politicalcontestations. The two historical trajectories of settler colonial statebuildingand urban influx control and segregation in South Africaand Kenya are contrasted, together with the struggles thataccompanied decolonisation and the transitions to democracy. Thearticle discusses the ways in which informal entrepreneurship hasdifferent weight and possibilities in the South African and theKenyan case, and shows the impact of different expectations ofstate delivery in the two environments. In conclusion, the authorstry to assess comparatively whether developments in the two casesof urban informal settlement in Durban and Nairobi are converging,or whether they exhibit different patterns of urban integration.
- Kaarsholm, Preben (2016), Indian Ocean Networks and the Transmutations of Servitude: The Protector of Indian Immigrants and the Administration of Freed Slaves and Indentured Labourers in Durban in the 1870s, in: Journal of Southern African Studies 42/3, pp. 443-461.
Focusing on Durban and its harbour, the article discusses the importation of different kinds oftransnational bonded labour into Natal in the last half of the 19th century, and examines theways in which Southern African and Indian Ocean histories were intertwined in the processesthat built the colonial state. The institution of the Protector of Indian Immigrants is highlightedas a central ingredient in state building, which served to give legitimacy in regulating the supplyof labour. The early history of the Protector’s work in the 1870s is given special attention asregards the introduction into Natal of freed slaves from the Indian Ocean coast, of indenturedlabourers from India, and of ‘Amatonga’ migrant workers from Mozambique. An 1877 murdercase is discussed, which led to the forced resignation of a Protector, as it threatened to underminethe respectability of the institution. The article shows the continuities that existed between formsof servitude from slavery and forced labour through the recruitment of ‘liberated Africans’ andindentured Indians to more recent types of migrant and voluntary wage labour.
- Krivokapić, Nataša (2008), Leisure time versus working time.
This paper is the chapter in the monography “Theoretical Approaches to Leisure Time”. It deals with the connection between working and free time, more precisely with the influence of the quality of working time on the way of spending free time and the types of activities. It is considered that the needs that a person has in his free time are related to the effects that working time produces.
- Kučera, Rudolf (2016 Hardback, 2019 Paperback), Rationed Life. Science, Everyday Life, and Working-Class Politics in the Bohemian Lands, 1914–1918, New York/Oxford.
Far from the battlefront, hundreds of thousands of workers toiled in Bohemian factories over the course of World War I, and their lives were inescapably shaped by the conflict. In particular, they faced new and dramatic forms of material hardship that strained social ties and placed in sharp relief the most mundane aspects of daily life, such as when, what, and with whom to eat. The book reconstructs the experience of the Bohemian working class during the Great War through explorations of four basic spheres—food, labor, gender, and protest—that comprise a case study in early twentieth-century social history.
- Kučera, Rudolf (2012), Marginalizing Josefina: Work, Gender, and Protest in Bohemia 1820–1844, in: Journal of Social History 46/2, pp. 430-448.
The study concentrates on the pre-1848 labor protests in Bohemia and analyzes them with respect to questions of gender. The paper explores how the codes and institutions of skilled labor masculinity shaped working-class collective action in pre-1848 Bohemia – one of the most industrialized European regions during the first half of the nineteenth century.
- Kuldova, Tereza (2016), Luxury Indian Fashion: A Social Critique, London: Bloomsbury.
- Kuldova, Tereza (2016), Fatalist Luxuries: Of Inequality, Wasting and Anti-Work Ethic in India, in: Cultural Politics 12/1, pp. 110-129.
- Kuldova, Tereza (2018), The “Ethical Sell” in the Indian Luxury Fashion Business, in: Pouillard, V./Blaczczyk, R. (eds.), European fashion: The creation of a global industry. Manchester University Press, pp. 263-282.
- Lambrecht, Thijs (2018), Harvest Work and Labor Market Regulation in Old Regime Northern France, in: Safley, Thomas Max (ed.), Labor Before the Industrial Revolution: Work, Technology and Their Ecologies in an Age of Early Capitalism, pp. 113-131.
- Lambrecht, Thijs/Winter, Anne (2018), An Old Poor Law on the Continent? Agrarian Capitalism, Poor Taxes, and Village Conflict in Eighteenth-Century Coastal Flanders, in: Economic History Review 71/4, pp. 1173-1198.
- Lambrecht, Thijs (2017), The Institution of Service in Rural Flanders in the Sixteenth Century: A Regional Perspective, in: Whittle, Jane (ed.), Servants in Rural Europe: 1400-1900, pp. 37-55.
- Latinović, Goran (2015), Jugoslovensko-švedski odnosi (1941‒1945) [Yugoslav-Swedish relations], in: Istorija 20. veka [20th century history] XXXIII/1, pp. 45‒60.
Despite the occupation and destruction of the Yugoslav state in April 1941, the Yugoslav Legation in Stockholm remained open and it continued its activities as one of the diplomatic missions of the Yugoslav Government in exile. Nazis interned 4,268 men from Yugoslavia on forced labour in Norway. They were forced to work on building roads in Northern Norway, in order to provide better conditions for supplying Nazi troops in Finland, as well as to build fortresses along the Norwegian coast. Around 2,400 of Yugoslavs lost their lives in Nazi camps in Norway during the forced labour, but some of them managed to flee in neutral Sweden. The influx of Yugoslavs from Norway to Sweden, influenced the Yugoslav-Swedish relations during the Second World War.
- Lindberg, Erik/Jacobsson, Benny/Ling, Sofia (2016), The “Dark Side” of the Ubiquity of Work: Vulnerability and Destitution among the Elderly, in: Ågren, Maria (ed.), Making a Living, Making a Difference. Gender and Work in Early Modern European Society, pp. 159-176.
This article explores the possibilities for old people to contract for care. The findings in the article suggest that family and wider kin could offer a safety net, but only when there was something to share. It further suggests that people were only obliged to take care of their close relatives when there was a written contract specifying who was to provide care and on what terms. Poverty, ability to work, and age constrained the options for groups vulnerable to economic stress. Those with property or movables were in a much better bargaining position than those without, but even the smallest amount of wealth was used to contract for care. The situation for the landless poor, whether old or young, was difficult. The compulsory service statutes restricted their time-use and forced them to work under one-year contracts, with a ceiling on their wages. Although the implementation of these statutes probably varied between regions and from one period to another, they reduced the agency of the poor and their ability to manage their resources according to their own preferences.
- Lisnic, Dumitru (2018), Colectivizarea agriculturii în RSSM. Studiu de caz: raionul Bălți, 1944-1950, in: Dobrincu, Dorin/Iordachi, Constantin (eds.), Edificarea orânduirii socialiste: Violența politică și lupta de clasă în colectivizarea agriculturii din România, 1949-1962, pp. 277-302.
This article examines the process of collectivisation of agriculture in post-war Moldovan SSR. Central to this study is the examination of the particularities of the collectivization of agriculture in Soviet Moldovia in comparison with the case of Baltic republics. The article explores the subject based on the case of a district from Moldovan SSR (the district of Bălți) and analyses the informal practices of local nomenklatura during the campaign of collectivisation as well as the strategies of resistance employed by peasants.
- Lisnic, Dumitru (2017), Lagărul de Prizonieri 103 și Spitalul Special 3376 din Bălți, în: Cheptea, Stela/Moldovan, Silviu B. (eds), Consecințele celui de-al Doilea Război Mondial în Spațiul Românesc, pp. 63-82.
This chapter explores the role of the POW camp from Balti (Moldovan SSR) in the post-war economics of this town. The chapter analyses the relations between the administration of the camp with the prisoners as well as the strategies of resistance employed by the latter. The examined case shows how a series of local inter-institutional conflicts enhanced the capacity of the prisoners to resist.
- Lisnic, Dumitru (2015), Sovietizarea Basarabiei: politici economice, repressive și sociale. Studiu de caz: orașul Bălți, in: Archiva Moldaviae VII, pp. 79-108.
This article concerns Soviet policy of distribution of dwellings and repressive campaigns in post-war cities of Soviet Moldavia. These policies were two major mechanisms of social control and were central to the implementation of regime’s project of social engineering. The article is a case study on the city of Balți (Moldovan SSR) and analyses the selection criteria based on which Soviet regime implemented its policy of social engineering in the territories annexed by USSR from Romania.
- Lopata, Maryan/Mastyka, Andrey/Tarita, Marius (2013), The Deportations from the Neighbouring Chernivtsy Region (Ukraine) in 1944-1953 and from the Bricheny, Oknitsa and Edinets Regions (Moldova) in 1949-1951.
- Mendiola, Fernando (2018), Of Firms and Captives: Railway Infrastructures and the Economics of Forced Labour (Spain, 1937-1957), in: Revista de Historia Industrial 68, pp. 165-192.
This article deals with the main economic keys that explain the evolution in the deployment of prisoners and prisoners of war on extending and reconstructing the railways. The first part presents a list of the works carried out during the Spanish civil war and the Francoist dictatorship. Subsequently, an analysis is made of the three main variables of work according to institutional change and the business structure of the Spanish railway.
- Mendiola, Fernando (2016), The role of unfree labour in capitalist development: Spain and its empire, 19th-21st centuries, in: International Review of Social History 61 (SI 24), pp. 187-211.
This article contributes to the debate on the persistence of forced labour within capitalist development. It focuses on Spain, which has been deeply rooted in the global economy, firstly as a colonial metropolis, and later as part of the European Union. In the first place, I analyse the different modalities of unfree labour. The article goes on to deal with the importance of the main economic reasons driving the demand for forced labour.
- Mendiola, Fernando (2014), Reeducation through work? Mountain roads in the Spanish concentration universe (Western Pyrenees, 1939-1942), in: Labor History 55/1, pp. 97-116.
This article deals with the forced labour system within the Spanish Concentration Universe, mainly that related to work battalions that were under the control of the Concentration Camps Inspectorate, involved in work consisting of opening roads along the Western Pyrenees after Spanish Civil War.
- Milićević, Nataša (2018), Činovnici u okupiranoj Srbiji 1941-1944 [Civil Servants in Occupied Serbia 1941-1944], in: Istorija 20, pp. 69-86.
This article explores factors which influenced changes of interwar position and status of civil servants under German occupation. Particular focus is on the “world of labor”, working conditions, and all forms of coercion by occupiers and collaborators authorities. The other topic is impact of small and insufficient salaries upon new forms of formal and informal jobs.
- Milićević, Nataša (2010), Neke forme prinudnog rada u Srbiji 1944-1950 [Certain Types of Forced Labour in Serbia 1944-1950], in: Gajger, Vladimir/Grahek Ravančić, Martina/Karakaš Obradov, Marica (eds.), Logori, zatvori i prisilni rad u Hrvatskoj/Jugoslaviji 1941-1945 [Camps, prisons and forced labour in Croatia/Yugoslavia 1941-1945, 1945-1951], pp. 183-203.
The paper focuses on different forms of forced labour in Serbia after WW II. The topic of the analyis is also the attitude and the vocabulary of Communist authorities. They often used terms like “mobilization”, “volunteer labour”, “required servise”, “required work”. The affected social groups were particularly observed. Such gropus were Volksdeutsche ( ethnic Germans), war prisoners, prison inmates, “volunteers”. The article explains who was hiding behind terms like “unproductive” or “enemy” elements.
- Milićević, Nataša (2009), Југословенска власт и српско грађанство 1944-1950 [The Yugoslav Authorities and Serbian Bourgeoisie 1944-1950] [645 pp.].
The book investigates an encompassing all treatment of the Serbian bourgeoisie by Communist authorities. In the chapter devoted to repression, there is a part dealing with right to work of the members of the Serbian bourgeoisie. There is a survey in the book of different ideological, political and administrative measures, as well as regime pressures that influenced rights to work, or prevented perceived “enemies” within the bourgeoisie to practice certain professions.
- Mironov, Alexandru-Murad (2019), Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik in Rumänien, in: Backes, Uwe/Heydemann, Günther/Vollnhals, Clemens (eds.), Staatssozialismen im Vergleich: Staatspartei – Sozialpolitik – Opposition, pp. 327-346.
This chapter explores the 1980s in Socialist Romania from a social and economic point of view. During this period, the state continued to improve the living conditions and to grant rights to a population that experienced modernization quite late. However, its requirements changed dramatically after 1980 as the early influences of consumerism began to be felt. Despite having two relatively good decades – probably the best in the whole of the twentieth century – the 80s practically placed Romania last in Europe in almost all development indicators. The economic crises, all sorts of shortages and growing discontent led to the Revolution of December 1989, succeeding to unite the workers, peasants, retirees, and the urban population against the political regime of Nicolae Ceausescu.
- Mironov, Alexandru-Murad (2014), Grigore Trancu-Iaşi şi “protecţia muncii naţionale”: Politica socială interbelică între naţionalism şi combaterea şomajului [Grigore Trancu-Iaşi and the “protection of national labor”: Interwar social policy between nationalism and the fight against unemployment], in: Transilvania 10-11, pp. 64-72.
This paper analyzes the historical grounds of a national policy to regulate labour in interwar Romania. The labour regime in that period was not even once modified by social pressure. Official interest varied according to economic conditions, government ideology and the personality of the holder of the office. The founder was Grigore Trancu-Iaşi, a radical statesman. Of humble extraction, he imagined himself as a sort of protector of Romanian workers. His vision was “national”: employers and employees were in the service of the motherland. The end of the democratical regime in 1938 came with a different political approach toward the working class. The political elite, democratically elected or directly appointed by the King, employed philanthropy or offered incentives. However, solidarity never became a reality.
- Mironov, Alexandru-Murad (2009), Comitetul oamenilor muncii [Workers’ committe], in: Arhivele Totalitarismului 1-2, pp. 221-227.
This paper analyzes the workers’ committees as the main instrument of control over the whole social-economical activity in Communist Romania. As the representatives of the working masses, these gatherings of employees (industrial, agricultural and commercial workers, engineers, desk clerks, teachers etc.) shared the decision-power with hierarchical appointed managers and directors. After the 1969 political decision of accelerating Socialist Romania’s economic and social development, the workers’ committee shared also the responsibility in implementing the five-year plans. Although they lacked real power, the workers’ committee soon became another instrument of control over ordinary people, by disposing of the distribution over assets and services (houses, holidays, cars).
- Mitsiou, Ekaterini/Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes (2019), Mercantile and Religious Mobility between Byzantines, Latins and Muslims, 1200-1500: On the Theory and Practice of Social Networks, in: Medieval Worlds 9, pp. 187-217.
This paper combines documentary evidence with concepts and tools of historical network science and social theory in order to explore phenomena of (especially) mercantile mobility and religious conversion in Late Byzantium (13th to 15th centuries), a period which is characterized by the intensification of commercial exchange and the multiplication of contact zones due to the growth of the activity of Italian merchant communities as well as due to the Mongol expansion across entire Asia.
- Mitsiou, Ekaterini/Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes (2017), Moving Hands: Types and Scales of Labour Mobility in the Late Medieval Eastern Mediterranean (1200-1500 CE), in: A. Gerritsen/Chr. de Vito (eds.), Micro-Spatial Histories of Global Labour, pp. 29-67.
This article explores subjects, objects, motives and consequences of labour mobility in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Late Middle Ages with a special focus on Byzantium. We have identified levels and scales as well as motivations and strategies of or towards labour mobility (in their socio-economic, cultural, political or environmental dimension, also with regard to the dichotomy forced/deliberate mobility and the efforts to control mobility by political and social actors).
- Mocarelli, Luca/Ongaro, Giulio (2019), Work in Early Modern Italy, 1500-1800.
The book considers the whole Italian peninsula as one geographical unit of analysis, encompassing all of the features that characterize labour cultures during the early modern period. It details the evolution of forms of labour in both agriculture and manufacture and the role of labour as an economic, social and cultural factor in the evolution of the Italian area.
- Müller, Viola (2019), Early Undocumented Workers: Runaway Slaves and African Americans in the American Urban South, c. 1830-1860, in: Labor History 60, pp. 865-868.
Between 1800 and 1860, thousands of people escaped slavery by making their way to the burgeoning cities and towns within the US South. There, runaway slaves joined free African Americans, of whom many were undocumented residents of their states. This ‘undocumentedness’ placed them in a liminal status between free and unfree. The increasingly disadvantageous socio-economic position of the free black population created opportunities for runaway slaves to blend in in large numbers, as well as for the undocumented as a whole to make ends meet.
- Müller, Viola (2018), Illegal but Ignored: Slave Refugees in Richmond, Virginia, 1800-1860, in: Pargas, Damian A. (ed.), Fugitive Slaves and Spaces of Freedom in North America, 1775-1860, pp. 137-167.
This chapter examines the experiences of runaway slaves in antebellum Richmond, Virginia. It asks why and how slave refugees were able to carve out living spaces for themselves, what the consequences of this ‘illegal freedom’ were, and how city authorities dealt with them. It shows that Richmond was one of many places within slaveholding territory where slave refugees could live as if they were free.
- Narlı, Nilüfer/Akdemir, Ayşegül (2019), Female Emotional Labour in Turkish Call Centres: Smiling Voices Despite Low Job Satisfaction, in: Sociological Research Online 24/3, pp. 278-296.
- Ongaro, Giulio (2019), Il lavoro militare nella prima età moderna (xvi-xvii sec.): soldati, guastatori e galeotti tra subordinazione e agency, in: MEFRIM: Italie et Méditerranée modernes et contemporaines, 131/1: L’empreinte domestique du travail, pp. 15-27.
The article aims at demonstrating that “domesticity” remained a fundamental element in the enrollment of men and, broadly, in the functioning of the military structure in spite of a supposed process of “nationalisation” of the armied between the early modern and the contemporary period. In this context, it also focuses on the agency of the soldiers, analysing different practices that affected the military structure and, broadly, the social context in which soldiers were placed.
- Bonazza, Giulia/Ongaro, Giulio (2018), Libertà e Coercizione: Il Lavoro in una Prospettiva di Lungo Periodo.
The essays collected in the book aim at analysing on the long run the various types of work relations. The main topics are free and unfree labour, and the relationship between freedom, coercion and precariousness. On the one hand, the book focuses on the social, cultural, political, economic, juridical and technological factors that affected the diversification of labour relations; on the other hand, it aims at deconstructing the historiographical perspective linking modernity to the transition from many labour relations to wage labour, as the only form of productive labour.
- Ongaro, Giulio (2017), Peasants and Soldiers: The Management of the Venetian Military Structure in the Mainland Dominion between the 16th and 17th Centuries.
The book aims at analysing the organisation of the Venetian army and military structure in the Mainland dominion in the early modern period. It mainly focuses on the role played by rural communities in financing the military structure, in lodging soldiers, in producing the saltpetre and in organizing the construction of defence structures. More, it analyses the ways through which peasants were involved as soldiers, sappers, sailors and builders.
- Østhus, Hanne (2018), Slaver og ikke-europeiske tjenestefolk i Danmark og Norge på 1700- og begynnelsen av 1800-tallet, in: Arbeiderhistorie 22, pp. 33-47.
The article examines the situation of slaves and former slaves who were brought, presumably by force, from Africa, Asia and America to the European part of Denmark-Norway during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to work as domestic servants in households. Based on source material from servant reward societies, censuses, newspapers and court cases, it is argued that state and society utilised a number of strategies to classify and categorise slaves and former slaves.
- Østhus, Hanne (2017), Servants in Rural Norway, ca. 1650-1800, in: Whittle, Jane (ed.), Servants in Rural Europe, ca. 1400-1900, pp. 113-130.
The chapter investigates the servant institution in pre-industrial rural Norway, particularly underscoring the many local and regional differences, also when it comes to the number of male or female servants. These differences, it is argued, demonstrate the flexibility of the servant institution, which adapted to a range of farm sizes, economic differences, and changing times.
- Østhus, Hanne (2017), Tvunget til tjeneste? Tjenesteplikten i Danmark-Norge på 1700-tallet og begynnelsen av 1800-tallet, in: Arbetarhistoria 3-4, pp. 26-31.
In the article, I look at the legal obligation to work as household servants in Denmark-Norway during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Large parts of the population were subject to this legislation, but the enforcement of the law varied considerably.
- Ožegović, Nikola (2014), Pravoslavlje u Nezavisnoj Državi Hrvatskoj, in: Šesta međunarodna konferencija, Jasenovac, genocid i zločini Nezavisne Države Hrvatske nad Srbima, Jevrejima i Romima u Drugom svjetskom ratu, pp. 449-456.
- Özkoray, Hayri Gökşin (2019), From Persecution to (Potential) Emancipation: Female Slaves and Legal Violations in Ottoman Istanbul according to Court Registers (16th-17th Centuries), in: Hawwa: Journal of Women of the Middle East and the Islamic World 17/2-3, pp. 257-280.
- Özkoray, Hayri Gökşin (ed.) (2019), Ma’cûncızâde Mustafa Efendi: Le Captif de Malte. Récit autobiographique d’un cadi ottoman.
- Özkoray, Hayri Gökşin (2017), L’esclavage dans l’Empire ottoman (XVIe-XVIIe siècle). Fondements juridiques, structures socio-économiques, représentations.
- Papastefanaki, Leda/Kabadayı, M. Erdem (eds.) (2020), Working in Greece and Turkey: A Comparative Labour History from Empires to Nation States, 1840–1940.
As was the case in many other countries, it was only in the early years of this century that Greek and Turkish labour historians began to systematically look beyond national borders to investigate their intricately interrelated histories. The 14 studies in “Working in Greece and Turkey” provide an overdue exploration of labour history on both sides of the Aegean, before as well as after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Deploying the approaches of global labour history as a framework, this volume presents transnational, transcontinental, and diachronic comparisons that illuminate the shared history of Greece and Turkey.
- Romano Barragán, Rossana/Papastefanaki, Leda (2020), Women and Gender in the Mines: Challenging Masculinity Through History: An Introduction, in: International Review of Social History 65/2, pp. 191-231.
The role of women as mineworkers and as household workers has been erased. Here, we challenge the masculinity associated with the mines, taking a longer-term and a global labour history perspective. We foreground the importance of women as mineworkers in different parts of the world since the early modern period and analyse the changes introduced in coal mining in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, the masculinization and mechanization, and the growing importance of women in contemporary artisanal and small-scale mining. The effect of protective laws and the exclusion of women from underground tasks was to restrict women’s work more to the household, which played a pivotal role in mining communities but is insufficiently recognized. This process of “de-labourization” of women’s work was closely connected with the distinction between productive and unproductive labour. This introductory article therefore centres on the important work carried out in the household by women and children. Finally, we present the three articles in the Special Theme in International Review of Social History and discuss how each of them is in dialogue with the topics addressed here.
- Papastefanaki, Leda (2020), Family, Gender, and Labour in the Greek Mines, 1860–1940, in: International Review of Social History 65/2, pp. 267-288.
To date, research on work in the mines in Greece has ignored the significance of gender in the workplace, since mining is associated exclusively with male labour. As such, it is considered, indirectly, not subject to gender relations. The article examines the influence of family and gender relations on labour in the Greek mines in the period 1860–1940 by highlighting migration trajectories, paternalistic practices, and the division of labour in mining communities. Sources include: official publications of the Mines Inspectorate and the Mines and Industrial Censuses, the Greek Miners’ Fund Archive, British and French consular reports, various economic and technical reports by experts, literature and narratives, the local press from mining regions, and the Archive of the Seriphos Mines.
- Pargas, Damian Alan (ed.) (2018), Fugitive Slaves and Spaces of Freedom in North America, Gainesville.
This volume contains 11 original essays that introduce a new way of studying the experiences of runaway slaves by defining the different “spaces of freedom” they inhabited. It also provides a groundbreaking continental view of fugitive slave migration, moving beyond the usual regional or national approaches to explore locations in Canada, the U.S. North and South, Mexico, and the Caribbean.
- Pargas, Damian Alan (2017), Urban Refugees: Fugitive Slaves and Spaces of Informal Freedom in the American South, 1800-1860, in: Journal of Early American History 7/3, pp. 262-284.
This article examines the experiences of runaway slaves who fled to urban areas within the American South, rather than to free-soil states and territories in North America. By utilizing free black social networks, changing their names and appearances, and procuring forged free papers just in case they were stopped by authorities, they managed to forge clandestine lives of informal freedom right in the heart of the slaveholding South.
- Pargas, Damian Alan (2014), Slavery and Forced Migration in the Antebellum South, New York.
This book sheds light on domestic forced migration by examining the experiences of American-born slave migrants from a comparative perspective. Juxtaposing and contrasting the experiences of long-distance, local, and urban slave migrants, it analyzes how different migrant groups anticipated, reacted to, and experienced forced removal, as well as how they adapted to their new homes.
- Perreaux, Nicolas (forthcoming), Des «seigneuries» laïques aux territoires ecclésiaux? Dynamique du processus de spatialisation dans les actes diplomatiques numérisés (VIIe-XIIIe siècles), in: Martine, Tristan/Schneider, Jens (eds.), Espaces ecclésiastiques et seigneuries laïques: Définitions, modèles et conflits en zones d’interface (IXe-XIIIe siècle).
This article examines the construction of the system of spatial organisation of medieval Europe as a whole. By analysing the evolution of the main spatial entities of this area (villa, pagus, comitatus, parochia, etc.) it draws up a general outline. This then allows various reflections on the specific dynamics of medieval Europe and its links with the Church.
- Perreaux, Nicolas (forthcoming), Les lieux de stockage dans les textes diplomatiques (VIIe-XIIIe siècles): Enquête lexicale, sémantique et numérique, in: Schneider, Laurent/Lauwers, Michel (eds.), Mises en réserve: Production, accumulation et redistribution des céréales dans l‘Occident médiéval et moderne.
This article studies the evolution of references to grain storage places in the diplomatic texts of medieval Europe. In contrast to archaeology, it shows that these do not appear in the texts until the 11th century, and develop strongly in the 12th-13th centuries. This evolution is therefore not only due to an increase in production and increased pressure on producers, but to a new look at the relations of production, a seigneurialisation of the medieval system, which goes hand in hand with a stronger spatial anchorage.
- Perreaux, Nicolas (forthcoming), Œuvrer, servir, souffrir. A propos de quelques termes médiolatins, in: Lauwers, Michel (ed.), Labeur et production au sein des monastères de l‘Occident médiéval.
The purpose of this article is threefold: a) to show that work could not structurally exist in the Middle Ages, unless it is considered that all organized human activity constitutes work; b) to attempt to grasp the articulation of the main mediolatin terms usually translated as (or considered to belong to) “work”, by showing both the bridges between these terms and the numerous aporias that their listing generates; c) to shift the question, by insisting on the imperative of reconstructing the relations of production in medieval Europe – relations which had complex and partly indirect links with the above-mentioned Mediolatine terms.
- Piqueras, José Antonio (2020), The end of the legal slave trade in Cuba and the second slavery, in: Dale Tomich (ed.), Atlantic transformations: Politics, Economy, and the Second Slavery, pp. 79-103.
- Piqueras, José Antonio (2017), Historical Slavery and Capitalism in Cuban Historiography, in: Dale Tomich (ed.), Slavery and Historical Capitalism during the Nineteenth Century, pp. 67-122.
- Piqueras, José Antonio (2016), The Return to the casa de vivienda and the barracon: The Terms of Social Action in Slave Plantations, in: Dale Tomich (ed.), The Politics of the Second Slavery, pp. 83-111.
- Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes/Reinfandt, Lucian/Stouraitis, Yannis (2020) (eds.), Migration Histories of the Medieval Afroeurasian Transition Zone. Aspects of mobility between Africa, Asia and Europe, 300-1500 C.E., 452 pp. (open access: https://brill.com/view/title/55556).
This volume includes a general overview and case studies of mobility and migration across different spatial scale in the area from Eastern Europe to East Africa and from Central Asia to the Mediterranean, including phenomena of (voluntary and involuntary) labour mobility and slavery.
- Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes (2020), Migration, in: Erik Hermans (ed.), A Companion to the Global Early Middle Ages, pp. 477-510.
This chapter provides an overview how migration connected different region of early medieval Afro-Eurasia between 600 and 900 CE, with a special focus on occupation mobility, trade diasporas and the migration of labour forces.
- Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes (2019), From one edge of the (post)Sasanian world to the other. Mobility and migration between the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Persian Gulf in the 4th to 9th centuries CE, in: Asutay-Effenberger, N./Daim, F. (eds.), Sasanian Elements in Byzantine, Caucasian and Islamic Art and Culture, pp. 9-17.
The chapter also discusses cases of non-elite mobility of artisans and other professionals within the Sasanian and Early Islamic Empire, especially towards and from the South Caucasus region.
- Prisac, Lidia/Gumenâi, Ion (2020/forthcoming), Between Separation an Unity in the Context of the Great Union. Armenians from Bessarabia, in: Ioan Bolovan and Oana Mihaela Tămaș (eds.), World War I and the Birth of a New World Order: The End of an Era, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Cambridge, pp. 184-203.
This article tells about national minorities behaviour, such as Armenians, in dificult event of World War I in a “contested” space of Eastern Europe.
- Prisac, Lidia (2019), Sub ocrotirea “fratelui mai mare” sau despre “naţionalităţile conlocuitoare” din R(A)SS Moldovenească, in: Liliana Corobca (ed.), Panorama comunismului în Moldova sovietică. Context, surse, interpretări, pp. 414-436.
This article explores the situations of national/ethnic minorites in the Soviet Union and especialy in Moldavian SS(A)R, the assimilation and russification problem.
- Rahi-Tamm, Aigi (2018), Doubly Marginalized People: The Hidden Stories of Estonian Society (1940-1960), in: Fleishman, Lazar/Weiner, Amir (eds.), War, Revolution, and Governance: The Baltic Countries in the Twentieth Century, pp. 239-265.
- Rahi-Tamm, Aigi (2018), Forced Migration of Estonian Citizens to the East 1941-1951: Some Similarities with the Accounts of People Who Fled to the Fest, in: Saueauk, Meelis/Hiio, Toomas (eds.), Proceedings of the Estonian Institute of Historical Memory. Eesti Mälu Instituudi toimetised, pp. 271-304.
- Rahi-Tamm, Aigi (2018), Homeless for Ever: The Contents of Home and Homelessness on the Example of Deportees from Estonia, in: Davoliute, Violeta/Balkelis, Tomas (eds.), Narratives of Exile and Identity in Soviet Deportation Memoirs from the Baltic States, pp. 65-84.
- Rediker, Marcus/Chakraborty, Titas/van Rossum, Matthias (eds.) (2019): A Global History of Runaways: Workers, Mobility, and Capitalism 1600-185.
- Ribeiro da Silva, Filipa/Carvalhal, Hélder (2020), Reconsidering the Southern European Model: Marital Status, Women’s work and labour relations in mid-eighteenth century Portugal, in: Revista de Historia Económica. Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History 38/1, pp. 45–77.
Challenging current ideas in mainstream scholarship on differences between female labour force participation in southern and north-western Europe and their impact on economic development, this article shows that in Portugal, neither marriage nor widowhood prevented women from participating in the labour market of mid-eighteenth-century. Our research demonstrates that marriage provided women with the resources they needed to work in various capacities in all economic sectors.
- Ribeiro da Silva, Filipa (2016), Political Changes and Shifts in Labour Relations in Mozambique, 1820s-1920s, in: International Review of Social History 61, pp. 1-21.
This article examines the main changes in the policies of the Portuguese state in relation to Mozambique and its labour force during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, stemming from political changes within the Portuguese Empire (i.e. the independence of Brazil in 1821), the European political scene (i.e. the Berlin Conference, 1884–1885), and the Southern African context (i.e. the growing British, French, and German presence). By becoming a principle mobilizer and employer of labour power in the territory, an allocator of labour to neighbouring colonial states, and by granting private companies authority to play identical roles, the Portuguese state brought about important shifts in labour relations in Mozambique.
- Hofmeester, Karin/Lucassen, Jan/Ribeiro da Silva, Filipa (2014), No Global history without Africa: Reciprocal Comparison and Beyond, in: History in Africa. A Journal of Method 41, pp. 249-276.
This introduction explains why it is important to include the history of labor and labor relations in Africa in Global Labor History. It suggests that the approach of the Global Collaboratory on the History of Labour Relations 1500–2000 – with its taxonomy of labour relations – is a feasible method for applying this approach to the historiography on labor history in Africa.
- Ristovska-Josifovska, Biljana (2019), On the Road of One Migration of Macedonians Towards Bulgaria in the Late 19th Century, in: A.I.E.S.E.E. (Macedonian National Committee, Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts) (ed.), Tradition in Communication and in the Spiritual Culture of Southeast Europe (Law‚ Economics, Natural Sciences, Art, Literature, Language), pp. 221-242.
The study is on the migration of Macedonians from northeastern part of Macedonia towards the region Tuzluk in Bulgaria, in the late 19th century. The research covers the memories of descendants of the generations that originally populated the region, as well as the documentation concerning their resettlement.
- Ristovska-Josifovska, Biljana (2017), Имплементацијата на Танзиматските реформи одразени низ настани од селото Галичник во Македонија/Implementacijata na Tanzimatskite reformi odrazeni niz nastani od seloto Galičnik vo Makedonija [The Implementation of the Tanzimat Reforms Reflected through Events from the Village Galičnik in Macedonia], in: Prilozi. Contributions, Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts XLVII/2, pp. 91-106.
The paper is focused on the implementation of the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire, through the analysis of specific examples from the Macedonian history. As a “study-case”, the village Galicnik is considered, seen by local authors on the consequences from the reforms.
- Ristovska-Josifovska, Biljana (2015), Remembrance on the Migration Movements in Macedonia after the Russian-Ottoman War of 1877-1878, in: Balkanistic Forum XXIV/3, pp. 30-45.
The events in Macedonia, associated with the end of the Russo-Ottoman War (1877-1878) and the unsuccessful liberation actions of the Macedonian people, created a complex political and economic situation, producing violence and exile. The paper focuses on the migrations as consequences, researching the reflection in various forms of stored memories and memorized history.
- Rossi, Benedetta (2017), Périodiser la fin de l’esclavage: Le droit colonial, la Société des Nations et la résistance des esclaves dans le Sahel nigérien, 1920-1930, in: Annales (Histoire, Sciences Sociales) 72/4, pp. 983-1021.
This article argues that legal abolition is not enough to end slavery: laws must be enforced to create conditions in which those most vulnerable will feel able to safely take action against slavers. It shows that emancipation in the West African Sahel was initially propelled in the 1920s by the establishment of international surveillance mechanisms with the power to (de-)legitimize colonial rule at a time when no one was actively seeking to end slavery in this region, in spite of slavery having been legally abolished since 1905. The first half of the paper focuses on the ambiguities of European abolitionism and the interconnections between the League of Nations, France, and French administrators on the ground. The second half of the paper develops a micro-analysis of slave resistance, showing how enslaved and trafficked young women took advantage of international anti-slavery to incriminate slaveholders.
- Rossi, Benedetta (2017), What “Development” Does to Work, in: International Labor and Working Class 92, pp. 7-23.
This article introduces a special issue on ‘Developmentalism, Labor, and the Slow Death of Slavery in Twentieth Century Africa’ guest-edited by Benedetta Rossi. It argues that by mobilizing the idea of development, both colonial and independent African governments were able to continue recruiting unpaid (or underpaid) labor—relabeled as “voluntary participation,” “self-help,” or “human investment” —after the passing of the ILO’s Forced Labor Convention in 1930. I ask what happens to our understanding of development if we focus not on the developers-beneficiaries dyad, but rather on employers-employees. Doing so opens up a renewed research agenda on the consequences of “aid” both for development workers (those formally employed by development institutions) and for so-called beneficiaries (those whose participation in development is represented as conducive to their own good).
- Rossi, Benedetta (2015), From Slavery to Aid: Politics, Labour, and Ecology in the Nigerien Sahel, 1800-2000.
This book engages two major themes in African historiography, the slow death of slavery and the evolution of international development, and reveals their interrelation in the social history of the region of Ader in the Nigerien Sahel. It traces the historical transformations that turned a society where slavery was a fundamental institution into one governed by the goals and methods of ‘aid’. Covering about two centuries – from the pre-colonial power of the Caliphate of Sokoto to the aid-driven governments of the present – this study explores the problem that has remained the central conundrum throughout Ader’s history: how workers could meet subsistence needs and employers fulfil recruitment requirements in an area where natural resources are constantly exposed to the climatic hazards characteristic of the edge of the Sahara.
- Ruoss, Matthias and Ludi, Regular (2020), Die Großmütter und wir: Freiwilligkeit, Feminismus und Geschlechterarrangements in der Schweiz, in: L’Homme. Europäische Zeitschrift für feministische Geschichtswissenschaft 31/1, pp. 87-104.
What is voluntarism and how can we conceptualize it as a subject of historical research? In this article we address these questions with regard to the relationship between gender arrangements and voluntarism in modern Switzerland. Our considerations are premised on the assumption that voluntary aid is not a spontaneous act or an amorphous activity but rather constitutes a mode that regulates social relations and structures the social order.
- Ruoss, Matthias (2019), Die neuen Freiwilligen. Gemeinnützigkeit in der Schweiz, 1970-1990, in: Historische Zeitschrift / Beihefte 76: Freiwilligenarbeit und gemeinnützige Organisationen im Wandel. Neue Perspektiven auf das 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, pp. 153-168.
This article examines the crisis of the Swiss welfare state and the renegotiation of social responsibility since the 1970s. It focuses on the discovery of volunteers by non-profit organizations and the reinterpretation of their work with the help of the feminist movement.
- Sarti, Raffaella, Anna Bellavitis and Manuela Martini (eds.) (2018), What is Work? Gender at the Crossroads of Home, Family, and Business from the Early Modern Era to the Present.
Every society throughout history has defined what counts as work and what doesn’t. And more often than not, those lines of demarcation are inextricable from considerations of gender. “What Is Work?” offers a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding labor within the highly gendered realm of household economies. Drawing from scholarship on gender history, economic sociology, family history, civil law, and feminist economics, these essays explore the changing and often contested boundaries between what was and is considered work in different Euro-American contexts over several centuries, with an eye to the ambiguities and biases that have shaped mainstream conceptions of work across all social sectors.
- Sarti, Raffaella (2019), Le “nom de domestique” est un “mot vague”. Débats parlementaires sur la domesticité pendant la Révolution française, in: Mélanges de l’École française de Rome. Italie et Méditerranée modernes et contemporaines 131/1, pp. 39-52.
The “term domestic servant” is a “vague word”. Parliamentary debates on domestic service during the French Revolution. Today, the term “domestic” appears old-fashioned and rather politically incorrect; however, when we talk about servants we think of people who do a certain job, although encompassing several tasks. Such an idea is the result of a long transformation that has seen the servant turn into a worker (more often a female worker) after being (considered) for millennia the subordinate member within a power relationship and/or a “tool” used by the master to perform any task, according to the definition of Aristotle. The debates that took place during the French Revolution were very important in this respect. My article will analyze these revolutionary debates on the status and definition of domestic workers, showing that they have contributed to transforming domestic service from a condition to a profession, even though such a transformation has never been fully accomplished.
- Sarti, Raffaella (2019), Can Historians Speak? A Few Thoughts and Proposals on a Possible Global History of Domestic Service/Work, in: Nitin Sinha, Nitin Varma, Pankaj Jha (eds.), Servants Pasts. Sixteenth to Eighteenth Century. South Asia, vol. 1.
The title of this contribution echoes the influential and controversial article by Gayatri Chakravorti Spivak “Can the Subaltern Speak?” – an inspiring question. However, I will not discuss her argument. Rather, it will highlight a common problem that historians have to face, namely the vocabulary they use. Such a problem seems particularly important in the study of domestic service/work, and even more so if they want to develop a comparative perspective and/or contribute to a possible global history of domestic service/work. The chapter examines the problem and suggests some possible strategies to overcome it and move toward a global history of domestic service/work.
- Schiel, Juliane/De Vito, Christian/van Rossum, Matthias (2020), From Bondage to Precariousness, in: Journal of Social History 54/2, pp. 1-19.
This article explores the possibility of a new, empirically based analytical and methodological framework for the study of labour relations and the reinterpretation of contemporary issues, including precariousness, „modern slavery,” social inequality, and dependence. It proposes a contextualized, interrelational and transepochal approach and discusses the potential of three research strategies.
- Schiel, Juliane (2015), Slaves’ Religious Choice in Renaissance Venice: Applying Insights from Missionary Narratives to Slave Baptism Records, in: Archivio Veneto 146, pp. 23-45.
This article investigates the motivation for and interests behind the baptism of slaves imported into late medieval Venice. It reviews Venetian slave sale records and reports left by mendicant missionaries and illustrates that baptism was less a matter of individual spiritual choice than a social practice perceived by the slave holders as an act of charity.
- Schiel, Juliane/Hanß, Stefan (eds.) (2014), Mediterranean Slavery Revisited (500-1800). Neue Perspektiven auf mediterrane Sklaverei (500–1800), Zürich.
This volume consists of 22 contributions own English, French, German or Italian language addressing the history of Mediterranean slavery from the medieval to the early modern period. The first section contains papers on the semantics, representations and depictions of slavery; the second section focuses on practices of slaving while the third section brings together papers with a transcultural or interdisciplinary approach.
- Sefer, Akın (2013), From Class Solidarity to Revolution: The Radicalization of Arsenal Workers in the Late Ottoman Empire, in: International Review of Social History 58/3, pp. 395-428.
This article introduces a bottom-up perspective to the history of the Revolution of 1908 in the Ottoman Empire by focusing on the experiences of workers in the Imperial Arsenal (Tersane-i Amire) in Istanbul. It explores, from a class-formation perspective, the struggles and relations of Arsenal workers, including the conscripts and children employed here, from the second half of the nineteenth century until the revolution.
- Seppel, Marten (2020), The Semiotics of Serfdom: How serfdom was perceived in the Swedish conglomerate state, 1561–1806, in: Scandinavian Journal of History, 45/1, pp. 48-70.
While serfdom did not exist in Sweden and Finland, it was accepted in the Baltic and German provinces. The main aim of the paper is to explore how the institution of serfdom was understood and interpreted in Stockholm. It will argue that there were clichés, stereotypes, and prejudices that have shaped the discourse on serfdom.
- Seppel, Marten (2017), Cameralist population policy and the problem of serfdom, 1680-1720, in: M. Seppel, K. Tribe (eds.), Cameralism in Practice: State Administration and Economy in Early Modern Europe, pp. 91−110.
The chapter argues that the demands to abolish serfdom in Central and Eastern Europe did not come up on the agenda only in the second half of the 18th century when the principles of enlightenment, liberalism and rationalism brought a new understanding of social order. The institution of serfdom became a problem for the absolutist states as early as the 1680s.
- Seppel, Marten (2011): Landlords’ Medical Care for their Serfs in the Baltic Provinces of the Russian Empire, in: Slavonic and East European Review 89/2, pp. 201−223.
The article looks at the opportunities of serfs to get medical care in the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire. It argues that although at the beginning of the nineteenth century the manors still played the main role as providers and mediators of medical aid to the peasantry, pressure to improve serfs’ health standards had started to come from the state and the authors of popular enlightenment from the 1760s.
- Siefert, Marsha (2020), Labor in State-Socialist Europe, 1945-1989: Contributions to a History of Work.
The Introduction and 16 essays offer new conceptual and empirical ways to understand the history of labor regimes from the end of World War II to 1989, and to think about how their experiences relate to debates about labor history, both European and global.
- Škobla, Daniel/Filčák, Richard (2019), Mundane Populism: Politics, Practices and Discourses of Roma Oppression in Rural Slovakia, in: Sociologia Ruralis.
In this article authors explore populist politics, discourses and social practices of antiziganism in rural regions of eastern Slovakia. The authors came to the conclusion that essential components of contemporary right-wing populism rest on what is characterised as ongoing racialized stigmatisation of Roma, reconfiguring previously racially uncategorised issues into ethnic problems and thus reinforcing the oppression of the disempowered Roma.
- Škobla, Daniel/Filčák, Richard (2016), Infrastructure in Marginalised Roma Settlements: Towards a Typology of Unequal Outcomes of EU Funded Projects, in: Sociológia 48/6, pp. 620-640.
Although a substantial number of infrastructure projects funded from EU funds were implemented to address labour market participation and living conditions of Roma/Gypsy, the outcomes had been inconclusive. In this paper the authors suggest that significant factors affecting the outcomes of EU projects aimed at Roma/Gypsy are structural conditions, power asymmetries, and rooted social practices at the local level. Employing P. Bourdieu’s conceptual framework and building on extensive fieldwork in municipalities of eastern and southern Slovakia, the authors identify three types of project outcomes.
- Škodrić, Ljubinka (2011), Prosvetni radnici u ideologiji Vlade Milana Nedića 1941-1944 [Educational Workers as Part of General Milan Nedić’s Government Ideology 1941-1944], in: Istorija 20/1, pp. 151-163.
The article explores efforts of the collaborationist government in occupied Serbia during World War II to remodel high school education as important ideological tool. According to the standpoints of the government, educational workers should act as propagators of the ideology that government wished to spread. On the contrary to government proclaims, most of the teachers and professors, showed passive or active resistance. Because of that some of them lost their service and were sent in the prisons and camps.
- Škodrić, Ljubinka (2009), Ministarstvo prosvete i vera u Srbiji 1941-1944. Sudbina institucije pod okupacijom, 443 p. [Ministry of Education and Religion in Serbia 1941-1944. The Fate of the Institution under the Occupation].
The book investigates the work, organization and structure of the Ministry of Education and Religion in Serbia during World War II and German occupation. Special focus is on the human resources policy of the Ministry of Education and Religion. The book analyzes the radical reduction of the number of civil servants and educational workers based on the racial, national, gender and age criteria. Staff reductions were used as an instrument of fight against employees who had different views and who were identified as “nationally unreliable”.
- Spicksley, Judith (2015), Contested enslavement: the Portuguese in Angola and the problem of debt, c. 1600-1800, in: Itinerario 39/2, pp. 247-275.
This article explores the contested legitimacy of enslavement for debt in the context of the transatlantic slave trade.
- Spicksley, Judith (2013), The decline of slavery for debt in Western Europe in the medieval period, in: Simonetta Cavaciocchi (ed.), Schiavitù e Servaggio nell’Economia Europea Secc. XI-XVIII [Serfdom and Slavery in the European Economy 11th – 18th Centuries], pp. 465-86.
This article examines the impact of secular and religious change on the legitimacy of enslavement for debt in medieval Europe.
- Spicksley, Judith (2013), Pawns on the Gold Coast: the rise of Asante and shifts in security for debt, 1680-1750, in: Journal of African History 54/2, pp. 147-175.
This article examines the shifting demand for gold among the Asante and the rise in the use of human pawns on the Gold Coast.
- Campbell, Gwyn/Stanziani, Alessandro (eds.) (2020), The Palgrave Handbook of Human Rights and Bondage in the Indian Ocean and Africa.
In the West, human bondage remains synonymous with the Atlantic slave trade. But large slave systems in Africa and Asia predated, co-existed, and overlapped with the Atlantic system—and have persisted in modified forms well into the twenty-first century, posing major threats to political and economic stability within those regions and worldwide. This handbook examines the deep historical roots of unfree labour in Africa and Asia along with its contemporary manifestations. It takes an innovative longue durée perspective in order to link the local and global, the past and present. Contributors trace shifting forms of forced labour in the region since circa 1800, connecting punctual shocks such as environmental crisis, conflict, market instability, and crop failure to human security threats such as impoverishment, violence, migration, kidnapping, and enslavement. Together, these chapters illuminate the historical and contemporary dimensions of bondage in Africa and Asia.
- Stanziani, Alessandro (2018), Labor on the Fringes of Empire. Voice, Exit and the Law.
After the abolition of slavery in the Indian Ocean and Africa, the world of labor remained unequal, exploitative, and violent, straddling a fine line between freedom and unfreedom. This book explains why. Unseating the Atlantic paradigm of bondage and drawing from a rich array of colonial, estate, plantation and judicial archives, Alessandro Stanziani investigates the evolution of labor relationships on the Indian subcontinent, the Indian Ocean and Africa, with case studies on Assam, the Mascarene Islands and the French Congo. He finds surprising relationships between African and Indian abolition movements and European labor practices, inviting readers to think in terms of trans-oceanic connections rather than simple oppositions. Above all, he considers how the meaning and practices of freedom in the colonial world differed profoundly from those in the mainland.
- Stanziani, Alessandro (2014), Bondage: Labor and Rights in Eurasia from the Sixteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries.
For the first time, this book provides the global history of labor in Central Eurasia, Russia, Europe, and the Indian Ocean between the sixteenth and the twentieth centuries. It contests common views on free and unfree labor, and compares the latter to many Western countries where wage conditions resembled those of domestic servants. This gave rise to extreme forms of dependency in the colonies, not only under slavery, but also afterwards in form of indentured labor in the Indian Ocean and obligatory labor in Africa. Stanziani shows that unfree labor and forms of economic coercion were perfectly compatible with market development and capitalism, proven by the consistent economic growth that took place all over Eurasia between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries. This growth was labor intensive: commercial expansion, transformations in agriculture, and the first industrial revolution required more labor, not less. Finally, Stanziani demonstrates that this world did not collapse after the French Revolution or the British industrial revolution, as is commonly assumed, but instead between 1870 and 1914, with the second industrial revolution and the rise of the welfare state.
- Stojić, Biljana (2018), Kordun od razvojačenja do ujedinjenja (1881-1918), in: Kordun – od Vojne granice do Republike Srpske Krajine 1881-1995, Beograd, pp. 19-134.
The chapter deals with the Serbian minority living in Austria-Hungary, most precisely in Kordun, a region of Croatia. As a research time frame, it was chosen in 1881 when Austria-Hungary decided to dissolute the last parts of the Military border and to incorporate them into civil societies. The end of research served the end of WWI and integration of Kordun and Croatia into the new state of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia). The main topic was the social and political transformation of Kordun accompanying social inequality of minorities as against the majority. I was most interested in research forms of social dependences, mobility of people within the Empire and abroad, the position of Serbian Orthodox Church, oppressions of the state to enforce its policy, mobilization of the minority into army forces during WWI.
- Štofaník, Jakub (2019), The Religious Life of the Industrial Working Class in the Czech Lands?, in: East Central Europe 46, pp. 99-110.
The article focuses on the role of religion among working-class inhabitants of two industrial towns in the Czech lands, Ostrava and Kladno, during the first half of the 20th century. It analyses the enormous conversion movement, the position of new actors of religious life, and the religious behavior of workers.
- Štofaník, Jakub (2017), Medzi krížom a kladivom [Between Cross and Hammer], Prague.
The monograph examines the construction, development, transfer, and adaptation of Catholic social thought in the first half of the 20th century in Czechoslovakia and in Belgium. The study aims for a critical reflection on the secularization paradigm, which dominated the analysis of the history of the 19th and 20th centuries for a long time. The involvement of Social Catholicism among workers is in this regard seen as an arena where the relationship between religion and modern society can be fruitfully questioned.
- Suodenjoki, Sami/Enbom, Leena/Pesonen, Pete (forthcoming 2020), Valvottu ja kuritettu työläinen.
This volume consists of articles, which focus on the controlling and disciplining of workers in Finland from the late 19th to the early 21st century. The anthology addresses the practices of political surveillance and control of workers and working-class activists, gendered norms of artistic and sports workers, attitudes to cheats at work, and the direction and control of working-class housing.
- Suodenjoki, Sami (2019), Turning the landless into socialists: Agrarian reforms and resistance as drivers of political mobilisation in Finland, 1880-1914, in: Joe Regan/Cathal Smith (eds.), Agrarian Reform and Resistance in an Age of Globalisation: The Euro-American World and Beyond, 1780-1914, Routledge, pp. 170-184.
This article addresses how the rise of the socialist movement in the Finnish countryside was linked with the agrarian relations and the changes in agriculture and landownership in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- Sundevall, Fia (2017), Military Education for Non-Military Purposes: Economic and Social Governing Projects Targeting Conscripts in Early Twentieth-Century Sweden, in: History of Education Review 46/1, pp. 58-71.
The article explores mandatory military service a– a means to recruit and train male citizens for military labour through force – s a tool and arena for solving various social and economic problems such as mass unemployment, alcohol abuse, and elementary education deficiencies, as well as shortages of skilled personnel in particular branches of great importance for the nation’s economy.
- Sundevall, Fia (ed.) (2016), Fritt och ofritt arbete i Norden: nya perspektiv på Arbetarhistoria, in: Arbetarhistoria 3–4.
This special issue of the Swedish language journal “Arbetarhistoria” [Labour history] provides new perspectives on labour history in the Nordic Countries. It consists of four empirical articles exploring various fields and degrees of labour coercion in Denmark, Iceland and Norway between 1600 and 1900.
- Tărîță, Marius (2016), The Policy of the Party’s Organiztaion in the Lipcani District of the Moldavian SSR in 1944-1945, in: Radu, Sorin/Budeancă, Cosmin (eds.), Countryside and communism in Eastern Europe. Perceptions. Attitude. Propaganda, pp. 79-84.
This article reflects the archive info concerning the authorities attitude in a little district (0,5 square km) during the last year of war. During that year the power there was shared by military and functionaries of Communist Party branch. In fact the military abused of their tools in imposing the peasants to contribute with grains for so-called State reserve. In internal discussions the fails were explained (transferred) through rich peasant origin of schools staff. A number of young were recruited to the Army and sent to front. Others were used in agricultural activities. The authorities treated the inhabitants of the district as persons with duties in face of state and imposed the lack of any choice.
- Tărîță, Marius (2012), Deportations and Forced Labour: Forms of Remembering in the Villages of Arboreny, Boian and Mahala (Chernivtsy Region, Ukraine), in: Interstitio: East European Review of Historical and Cultural Anthropology 1-2, pp. 126-135.
In this article was used information from interviews with persons from three Romanian language villages of Northern Bukovina, about deportation of a number of families of peasants to Siberia in June 1941, recruitment for forced labor near Onega lake in August 1944. Remembering vary from full of cruel details (realist to naturalist) in the case of persons who had at least 18 years at that moment, to more complex/mixed in the case of kids, who beside difficulties also can address to positive emotions.
- Popinigis, Fabiane/Terra, Paulo Cruz (2019): Classe, raça e a história social do trabalho no Brasil (2001-2016), in: Estudos Históricos 32/66, pp. 307-329.
- Terra, Paulo Cruz (2014), Free and Unfree Labour and Ethnic Conflicts in the Brazilian Transport Industry: Rio de Janeiro in the Nineteenth Century, in: International Review of Social History 59/S22, pp. 113-132.
- Terra, Paulo Cruz (2017), Trabalhadores escravizados e livres na legislação municipal (Rio de Janeiro, século XIX), in: Pestana, Marco Marques/Costa, Rafael Maul de Carvalho/Oliveira, Tiago Bernardon de (eds.), Subalternos em movimento: mobilização e enfrentamento à dominação no Brasil, pp. 95-208.
- Tolino, Serena (2016), The History of Prostitution in Egypt (1885-1949): From Regulation to Prohibition, in: Kurz, Susanne/Preckel, Claudia/Reichmuth, Stefan (eds.), Muslim Bodies: Körper, Sexualität und Medizin in muslimischen Gesellschaften, pp. 131-154.
This article explores the legal path that prostitution underwent in Egypt, from regulation to abolition to prohibition. It represents a first mapping of laws related to sex work in Egypt, that will allow in the future to embed research on sex work into labour history.
- Tolino, Serena (2018), Eunuchs in the Fatimid Empire: Ambiguities, Gender and Sacredness, in: Höfert, Almut/Mesley, Matthew M./Tolino, Serena (eds.), Celibate and Childless Men in Power: Ruling Eunuchs and Bishops in the Pre-Modern World, pp. 246-266. This article explores the interconnection between gender and sacredness in relation to eunuchs in the Fatimid Empire (909-1171), a dynasty that ruled in particular over North Africa, Egypt and Yemen. The article explores different discourses on eunuchs in the Islamicate world (lexicography, law, adab). Following the life of specific eunuchs, the article also argues that gender is a fundamental category of analysis when looking eunuchs in the Fatimid empire and, more generally in Islamicate courts.
- Tornhill, Sofie (2019), The Business of Women’s Empowerment. Corporate Gender Politics in the Global South.
This monograph explores corporate initiatives to empower women in the Global South through the promotion of micro entrepreneurship within informal economic sectors. From an ethnographic approach, it scrutinizes how the political imperative of “creating jobs” is intertwined with individual risks for women in precarious economic positions as well as with the increasing authority of global corporations in development and gender politics.
- Uppenberg, Carolina (2018), I husbondens bröd och arbete. Kön, makt och kontrakt i det svenska tjänstefolkssystemet 1730–1860 [Servants and masters. Gender, contract, and power relations in the servant institution in Sweden, 1730-1860], unpublislhed Dissertation, University of Gothenburg.
In my doctoral thesis I studied the institution of rural servants from a labour market and a gender perspective. Pre-industrial servants were subject to compulsory service, but at the same time part of a labour market where they could choose their employer freely. I the thesis I examined the laws shaping the institution, the handling of the laws in court, and the discourse of free and unfree labour relations surrounding servants and masters.
- Uppenberg, Carolina (2017), The servant institution during the Swedish agrarian revolution: the political economy of subservience, in: Whittle, J. (ed.), Servants in rural Europe 1400–1900, pp. 167–182.
This article develops the gendered aspects of the various dimensions of the servant institution. It is shown that male and female servants had different levels of freedom in their labour contracts, and this is related to the later development of a feminized servant position.
- Ulrich, Nicole (2019), “Journeying into Freedom”: Traditions of Desertion at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652-1795, in: Rediker, Marcus/Chakraborty, Titas/van Rossum, Matthias (eds.), A Global History of Runaways: Workers, Mobility and Capitalism, 1600-1850, pp. 115-134.
- Ulrich, Nicole (2018), Between Reform and Revolution: The Cape’s Popular Classes Under British Rule During the Age of Revolution, c. 1803-1814, in: Fullagar, Kate/McDonnel, Michael (eds.), Facing Empire: Indigenous Experiences in a Revolutionary Age, pp. 163-191.
- Tărîţă, Marius (2012), Deportations and Forced Labour: Forms of Remembering in the Villages of Arboreny, Boian and Mahala (Chernivtsy Region, Ukraine), in: Interstitio: East European Review of Historical and Cultural Anthropology 1-2, pp. 126-135.
- Tărîţă, Marius (2016), The Policy of the Party’s Organization in the Lipcani District of the Moldavian SSR in 1944-1945, in: Radu, Sorin/Budeancă, Cosmin (eds.), Countryside and communism in Eastern Europe. Perceptions. Attitude. Propaganda, pp. 79-84.
- Tolino, Serena (2016), The History of Prostitution in Egypt (1885-1949): From Regulation to Prohibition, in: Kurz, Susanne/Preckel, Claudia/Reichmuth, Stefan (eds.), Muslim Bodies: Körper, Sexualität und Medizin in muslimischen Gesellschaften, pp. 131-154.
- Tolino, Serena (2018), Eunuchs in the Fatimid Empire: Ambiguities, Gender and Sacredness, in: Höfert, Almut/Mesley, Matthew M./Tolino, Serena (eds.), Celibate and Childless Men in Power: Ruling Eunuchs and Bishops in the Pre-Modern World, pp. 246-266.
- Valuch, Tibor (2019), The World of Labor and Workers in Modern East-Central Europe: Introduction to the Thematic Issue, in: East Central Europe 46: Workers, Labor and Labor History in Modern East Central Europe, ed. by Tibor Valuch, 1-8.
In this special issue we are going to focus on answering the following questions: Why is East-Central European labor history peculiar or special? How and why has the situation of labor history been changing during the last decades? What is the relation between global labor history and ece labor history? What kind of gaps are there in the research and what are the most important Research trends?
- van Rossum, Matthias/Kamp, Jeannette (eds.) (2016), Desertion in the Early Modern World: A Comparative History.
- van Rossum, Matthias/Geelen, Alexander/van den Hout, Bram/Tosun, Merve (forthcoming), Testimonies of Enslavement: Sources on Slavery from the Indian Ocean World.
- Viitaniemi, Ella (2019), Muurarimestari Kustaa Stenman ja katumaton maailma. Pietismi, kirjoittaminen ja kokemuksen siirtäminen länsisuomalaisella maaseudulla 1700-jälkipuoliskolla [Master mason Kustaa Stenman and the unrepentant world. Piestism, Literacy and the Transition of Experience in the Western Finland], in: J. Annola, V. Kivimäki & A. Malinen (eds.), Eletty historia. Kokemus näkökulmana menneisyyteen, pp. 75–112.
- Viitaniemi, Ella (2018), Hyödyn aikakauden talouspolitiikka, vuokraviljely ja tilattomuuden kasvu [Utilitarian economic policy, tenant farming and growth of landless people], in: Riikka Miettinen & Ella Viitaniemi (eds.), Reunamailla. Tilattomat Länsi-Suomen maaseudulla 1600–1800 [On the Fringes. The Landless in Rural Western Finland 1600–1800], pp. 380–417.
- Viitaniemi, Ella (2018), Urban seasonal workers and rural church constructions in eighteenth-century Finland, in: Maija Ojala-Fulwood (ed.), Migration and Multi-ethnic Communities. Mobile People from the Late Middle-Ages to the Present, pp. 147–168.
- Vilhelmsson, Vilhelm (2017), Sjálfstætt fólk: Vistarband og íslenskt samfélag á 19. öld.
This book is a revised version of my doctoral thesis. It is a study of the dominant labour regime of compulsory service in nineteenth century Iceland, focusing particularly on non-compliance with coercive labour legislation and acts of everyday resistance by servants and illegal day labourers, using regional court archives and arbitration court proceedings to analyse everyday practices. It also discusses in detail the cultural role of life-cycle service and the master-servant relationship as well as dominant ideas of household discipline and social order in early modern Iceland.
- Vilhelmsson, Vilhelm (2017), Ett normalt undantag? Tillfälligt arbete i lag och praktik i 1800-talets Island, in: Arbetarhistoria 41/3-4, pp. 32-40.
This article discusses the ambiguous status and role of casual day labourers in nineteenth century Iceland and argues that masterless casual day labour was a “normal exception” in many localities, accepted as an economic necessity and cultural norm despite being illegal and frowned upon in public discourse. The article highlights the important distinction between normative prescription and everyday practice.
- Hotson, Howard/Wallnig, Thomas (2019), Reassembling the Republic of Letters in the Digital Age. Standards, Systems, Scholarship.
The book documents the efforts of COST Action IS1310 (2014-18) in bringing together a community of digital scholars interested in early modern correspondence and intellectual culture at large. It outlines the dimensions of the digital approach – from tech to discourse -, and it celebrates the benefits of collaborative work encouraged by the COST program.
- Wunsch, Cornelia/Magdalene, F. Rachel (2014), Freedom and Dependency: Neo-Babylonian Manumission Documents with Oblation and Service Obligation, in: M. Kozuh, with W. Henkelman, C.E. Jones, C. Woods (eds.), Extraction and Control: Studies in Honor of Matthew W. Stolper, pp. 337-346.
- Wunsch, Cornelia/Magdalene, F. Rachel (2012), A Slave Is not Supposed to Wear such a Garment, in: Kaskal 9, pp. 99-120.
- Wunsch, Cornelia/Magdalene, F. Rachel (2011), Slavery between Judah and Babylon: The Exilic Experience, in: L. Culbertson (ed.), Slaves and Household in the Near East, pp. 113-134.
- Zammit, William (2019), The Faith Triumphant: Muslim Converts to Catholicism and the Order of St John, 1530-1798, in: Morton, Nicholas (ed.), The Military Orders, Vol. VII: Piety, Pugnacity and Property, pp. 160-171.
A study upon the motivations and mechanisms of Muslim conversion to Catholicism in Hospitaller Malta. Both Muslim slaves but also free Muslims periodically opted for conversion in Malta. The paper provides statistical data of such conversions from untapped primary sources.
- Zammit, William (2016), Kissing the Gallows: A Cultural History of Crime, Torture and Punishment in Malta.
The first-ever in-depth academic study of crime and retribution in Malta during the early modern period discusses the primary sources available on the subject, the nature of crime, the judicial system and the ritual of public punishment in the context of current European practices. The book also records hundreds of crime cases of various types and that were reported to Rome by the Inquisitors of Malta, this given their spectacular nature. The publication was the result of ten years research in the Archivio Apostolico Vaticano and a variety of other archives in Malta and abroad.
- Živković, Predrag (2018), Ideological ornamentation of postmodern geography. The case of Zagreb and Podgorica, in: Annales. Series Historia et Sociologia 28/2, pp. 399-414.
Relying on comparative sociological research of transition transformations of the capitals of Croatia and Montenegro (Zagreb and Podgorica), the paper recognizes their stages of development from the socialist to the neoliberal city from the standpoint of thanatopolitics. The paper discusses the thanatosociological inequalities that appear in the neoliberal city, as well as the awakening of cargo cults in post-socialist societies. Based on these research findings, we arrive at the phenomenon of chronocide as a key determinant of post-socialist societies.
- Živković, Predrag (2016), Antropološka misao rizičnog društva [The Anthropological thought of a risky society], in: Vukićević, S. (ed.): »Постсоциализм (Черногория-Россия 1990-2015)« Москва: МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова Социологический факультет / Институт социологии и психологии Филозофский факультет Черногории, pp. 333-376.
The “Anthropological thought of a risky society” is a chapter in the monograph “Postsocialism”, which followed the development of entrepreneurship in the post-socialist period of Montenegro and Russia. The study describes the anthropological dysfunctions of the two societies in the postmodern era, as well as the anemia of their institutions to resist all those anomalies that accompany societies in transition. It is primarily about imposed neoliberalization not only in the domain of economics, but also beyond.
- Živković, Predrag (2016), Da li je moguć dijalog s demokratijom? [Is a dialogue with democracy possible?], in: Letopis Matice srpske, 497/4, 457-472.
The paper follows the chronology of the idea of liberalism through the works of its founders, but above all seeks the “hidden pages” of the devaluation of its original idea. It is a historical meeting of two ideological platforms of liberalism and democracy, as well as an indication of their contemporary forms that are manifested in neoliberalism and post-democracy, as toponyms of ideological nihilism.
- Zimmermann, Susan (2019), “It Shall Not Be a Written Gift, But a Lived Reality.” Equal Pay, Women’s Work, and the Politics of Labor in State-Socialist Hungary, Late 1960s to Late 1970s, in: Siefert, Marsha (ed.), Labor in State-Socialist Europe: Contributions to a Global History of Work, pp. 337-372.
- Zimmermann, Susan (2019), Equality of Women’s Economic Status? A Major Bone of Contention in the International Gender Politics Emerging During the Interwar Period, in: The International History Review 41/1, pp. 200-227.
- Zimmermann, Susan (2018), Globalizing Gendered Labor Policy: International Labor Standards and the Global South, 1919-1947, in: Boris, Eileen/Hoehtker, Dorothea/Zimmermann, Susan (eds.), Women’s ILO. Transnational Networks, Global Labour Standards and Gender Equity, 1919 to Present, pp. 227-254.
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